2016/17 – Padthaway (South Australia) – Hardness, Chloride, Sodium

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Padthaway – South Australia

September 13 2016: Padthaway (South Australia) – Calcium Hardness 397mg/L

November 8 2016: Padthaway (South Australia) – Calcium Hardness 429mg/L

March 27 2017: Padthaway (South Australia) – Calcium Hardness 372mg/L

June 20 2017: Padthaway (South Australia) – Calcium Hardness 370mg/L

GUIDELINE

“To minimise undesirable build‑up of scale in hot water systems, total hardness (as calcium
carbonate) in drinking water should not exceed 200 mg/L.

Hard water requires more soap than soft water to obtain a lather. It can also cause scale to form on hot water pipes and fittings. Hardness is caused primarily by the presence of calcium and magnesium ions, although other cations such as strontium, iron, manganese and barium can also contribute.”

Australian Drinking Water Guidelines 2011

Padthaway (South Australia) – Chloride

September 13 2016 Padthaway (South Australia)  Chloride 619mg/L

November 8 2016 Padthaway (South Australia)  Chloride 620mg/L

March 27 2017 Padthaway (South Australia)  Chloride 607mg/L

June 20 2017 Padthaway (South Australia)  Chloride 618mg/L

“Chloride is present in natural waters from the dissolution of salt deposits, and contamination from effluent disposal. Sodium chloride is widely used in the production of industrial chemicals such as caustic soda, chlorine, and sodium chlorite and hypochlorite. Potassium chloride is used in the production of fertilisers.

The taste threshold of chloride in water is dependent on the associated cation but is in the range 200–300 mg/L. The chloride content of water can affect corrosion of pipes and fittings. It can also affect the solubility of metal ions.

In surface water, the concentration of chloride is usually less than 100 mg/L and frequently below 10 mg/L. Groundwater can have higher concentrations, particularly if there is salt water intrusion.

Based on aesthetic considerations, the chloride concentration in drinking water should not exceed 250 mg/L.

No health-based guideline value is proposed for chloride.” 2011 Australian Drinking Water Guidelines

Padthaway (South Australia) – Sodium

5/9/16 Padthaway  Sodium 314mg/L

28/11/16 Padthaway Sodium 373mg/L

20/3/17 Padthaway Sodium 316mg/L

13/6/17 Padthaway Sodium 308mg/L

“Based on aesthetic considerations (taste), the concentration of sodium in drinking water
should not exceed 180 mg/L….The sodium ion is widespread in water due to the high solubility of sodium salts and the abundance of mineral deposits. Near coastal areas, windborne sea spray can make an important contribution either by fallout onto land surfaces where it can drain to drinking water sources, or from washout by rain. Apart from saline intrusion and natural contamination, water treatment chemicals, domestic water softeners and
sewage effluent can contribute to the sodium content of drinking water.” ADWG 2011