2016/19 – Prairie (Queensland) – Iron, Total Dissolved Solids, Sodium, Chloride, Pesticide (Heptachlor), Strontium, Manganese

2018/19 – Prairie (Queensland) – Lead

2018/19: Prairie (Queensland) – Lead <0.13mg/L (max) 0.0166mg/L (mean).

Lead Australian Drinking Water Guideline 0.01mg/L

“… Lead can be present in drinking water as a result of dissolution from natural sources, or from household plumbing systems containing lead. These may include lead in pipes, or in solder used to seal joints. The amount of lead dissolved will depend on a number of factors including pH, water hardness and the standing time of the water.

Lead is the most common of the heavy metals and is mined widely throughout the world. It is used in the production of lead acid batteries, solder, alloys, cable sheathing, paint pigments, rust inhibitors, ammunition, glazes and plastic stabilisers. The organo-lead compounds tetramethyl and tetraethyl lead are used extensively as anti-knock and lubricating compounds in gasoline…ADWG 2011

Prairie (Queensland) – Iron

2016/17: Prairie (Queensland)  – Iron 1.2mg/L

2018/19: Prairie (Queensland)  – Iron 9.2mg/L (max), 0.975mg/L (mean)

Based on aesthetic considerations (precipitation of iron from solution and taste),
the concentration of iron in drinking water should not exceed 0.3 mg/L.
No health-based guideline value has been set for iron.

Iron has a taste threshold of about 0.3 mg/L in water, and becomes objectionable above 3 mg/L. High iron concentrations give water an undesirable rust-brown appearance and can cause staining of laundry and plumbing fittings, fouling of ion-exchange softeners, and blockages in irrigation systems. Growths of iron bacteria, which concentrate iron, may cause taste and odour problems and lead to pipe restrictions, blockages and corrosion. ADWG 2011

2016/19 – Prairie (Queensland) – Total Dissolved Solids

2016/17: Prairie (Queensland) – Total Dissolved Solids 969mg/L (maximum), 698.4mg/L (average)
2018/19: Prairie (Queensland) – Total Dissolved Solids 680mg/L (maximum), 671.8mg/L (average)


“No specific health guideline value is provided for total dissolved solids (TDS), as there are no
health effects directly attributable to TDS. However for good palatability total dissolved solids
in drinking water should not exceed 600 mg/L.

2016/19 – Prairie – Sodium

2016/17: Prairie (Queensland) – Sodium 230mg/L (highest detection) Sodium 216.8mg/L (average detection)

2017/18: Prairie (Queensland) – Sodium 220mg/L (highest detection) Sodium 213.3mg/L (average detection)

2018/19: Prairie (Queensland) – Sodium 220mg/L (max) Sodium 216mg/L (average detection)

“Based on aesthetic considerations (taste), the concentration of sodium in drinking water
should not exceed 180 mg/L….The sodium ion is widespread in water due to the high solubility of sodium salts and the abundance of mineral deposits. Near coastal areas, windborne sea spray can make an important contribution either by fallout onto land surfaces where it can drain to drinking water sources, or from washout by rain. Apart from saline intrusion and natural contamination, water treatment chemicals, domestic water softeners and
sewage effluent can contribute to the sodium content of drinking water.” ADWG 2011

2016/19 – Prairie (Queensland) – Chloride

2016/17: Prairie (Queensland)  Chloride 250mg/L (Highest Level)

2017/18: Prairie (Queensland)  Chloride 250mg/L (Highest Level), 244.4mg/L (av.)

2018/19: Prairie (Queensland)  Chloride 250mg/L (max), 244mg/L (mean)

“Chloride is present in natural waters from the dissolution of salt deposits, and contamination from effluent disposal. Sodium chloride is widely used in the production of industrial chemicals such as caustic soda, chlorine, and sodium chlorite and hypochlorite. Potassium chloride is used in the production of fertilisers.

The taste threshold of chloride in water is dependent on the associated cation but is in the range 200–300 mg/L. The chloride content of water can affect corrosion of pipes and fittings. It can also affect the solubility of metal ions.

In surface water, the concentration of chloride is usually less than 100 mg/L and frequently below 10 mg/L. Groundwater can have higher concentrations, particularly if there is salt water intrusion.

Based on aesthetic considerations, the chloride concentration in drinking water should not exceed 250 mg/L.

No health-based guideline value is proposed for chloride.” 2011 Australian Drinking Water Guidelines

Prairie (Queensland) – Heptachlor

2017/18: Prairie (Queensland) Total Heptachlor 0.371ug/L (mean)

2017/18 Drinking Water Quality Management Plan Flinders Shire Council

Heptachlor is a broad spectrum insecticide used in Australia until September 1994 to protect wooden structures against termites. Its other former uses were withdrawn in the late 1970s and early 1980s.
Heptachlor epoxide, an oxidation product of heptachlor, is not commercially available.
Heptachlor is moderately persistent in soil. It is transformed slowly to the epoxide, which is very resistant to further chemical or biological degradation.
Heptachlor has been detected at low nanogram per litre concentrations in water supplies in Europe and the United States. It has been found in a number of foods including human milk. The daily adult intake for heptachlor and the epoxide in the United States has been estimated at about 0.000007 mg/day (7 ng/day) and 0.0002 mg/day respectively. The 1990 Australian Market Basket Survey did not find heptachlor or the epoxide in any of the foods tested (NHMRC and NFA 1991).
Heptachlor has not been detected in major Australian drinking water supplies.

Prairie (Queensland) – Strontium

2017/18: Prairie Source (Queensland) Strontium 0.68mg/L (max), 0.604286mg/L (av.)

2017/18: Prairie Reticulation (Queensland) Strontium 0.68mg/L (max), 0.652222mg/L (av.)

2018/19: Prairie Reticulation (Queensland) Strontium 0.73mg/L (max), 0.6815mg/L (av.)

Cobalt, Strontium and Thallium and Vanadium were detected at Torrens Creek while Strontium was detected at Prairie and Hughenden.The detection of these parameters was discussed with Qld Health who have provided Council with advice and guideline values for these parameters. The general advice was that detections of Strontium and Cobalt need not be reported and that a Guideline value for Thallium is provided by the USEPA (0.0005 mg/L). The guideline value for Vanadium is based on the Californian EPA’s value of 0.015mg/L.

Prairie (Queensland) – Manganese

2018/19: Prairie (Qld)  1.3mg/L (max), <0.1826mg/L (mean)

Manganese: ADWG Guidelines 0.5mg/L. ADWG Aesthetic Guideline 0.1mg/L
Manganese is found in the natural environment. Manganese in drinking water above 0.1mg/L can give water an unpleasant taste and stain plumbing fixtures and laundry.