Wasleys (South Australia) – Bromodichloromethane
2018/19: Wasleys (South Australia) Bromodichloromethane 72ug/L (max), 62.4ug/L (av.)
WHO Guideline level BDCM: 60ug/L (Australian Guideline for BDCM is included in the combined total of BDCM, Chloroform, Dibromochloromethane and Bromoform. THM guideline is 250ug/L)
“Carcinogenicity : Bromodichloromethane is reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity from studies in experimental animals.
Cancer Studies in Experimental Animals: Oral exposure to bromodichloromethane caused tumors at several different tissue sites in mice and rats. Administration of bromodichloromethane by stomach tube caused benign and malignant kidney tumors (tubular-cell adenoma and adenocarcinoma) in male mice and in rats of both sexes, benign and
malignant liver tumors (hepatocellular adenoma and carcinoma) in female mice, and benign and malignant colon tumors (adenomatous polyps and adenocarcinoma) in rats of both sexes (NTP 1987, ATSDR 1989, IARC 1991, 1999).
Since bromodichloromethane was listed in the Sixth Annual Report on Carcinogens, additional studies in rats have been identified. Administration of bromodichloromethane in the drinking water increased the combined incidence of benign and malignant liver tumors (hepatocellular adenoma or carcinoma) in males (George et al. 2002) and caused benign liver tumors (hepatocellular adenoma) in females (Tumasonis et al. 1987).
Cancer Studies in Humans
The data available from epidemiological studies are inadequate to evaluate the relationship between human cancer and exposure specifically to bromodichloromethane. Several epidemiological studies indicated a possible association between ingestion of chlorinated drinking water (which typically contains bromodichloromethane) and increased risk of
cancer in humans, but these studies could not provide information on whether any observed effects were due to bromodichloromethane or to one or more of the hundreds of other disinfection by-products also present in chlorinated water (ATSDR 1989).” (1)
Wasleys – South Australia – Temperature
December 20 2016: Wasleys (South Australia) Goss Rd – Temperature 22C
January 18 2017: Wasleys (South Australia) Goss Rd – Temperature 26C
February 14 2017: Wasleys (South Australia) Goss Rd – Temperature 24C
March 15 2017: Wasleys (South Australia) Goss Rd – Temperature 24C
“No guideline is set due to the impracticality of controlling water temperature.
Drinking water temperatures above 20°C may result in an increase in the number of
Temperature is primarily an aesthetic criterion for drinking water. Generally, cool water is more palatable than warm or cold water. In general, consumers will react to a change in water temperature. Complaints are most frequent when the temperature suddenly increases.
The turbidity and colour of filtered water may be indirectly affected by temperature, as low water temperatures tend to decrease the efficiency of water treatment processes by, for instance, affecting floc formation rates and sedimentation efficiency.
Chemical reaction rates increase with temperature, and this can lead to greater corrosion of pipes and fittings in closed systems. Scale formation in hard waters will also be greater at higher temperatures…
Water temperatures in major Australian reticulated supplies range from 10°C to 30°C. In some long, above-ground pipelines, water temperatures up to 45°C may be experienced…
The effectiveness of chlorine as a disinfectant is influenced by the temperature of the water being dosed. Generally higher temperatures result in more effective disinfection at a particular chlorine dose, but this may be counterbalanced by a more rapid loss of chlorine to the atmosphere (AWWA 1990).