2016/2017: Hammond (South Australia) – E.coli, Calcium Hardness, Chloride, Sodium, Sulphate, Temperature, Total Dissolved Solids

Hammond Town Supply – South Australia E.coli

NON POTABLE DRINKING WATER

May 2017: Hammond (South Australia) – E.coli 1 MPN/100ml

Escherichia coli should not be detected in any 100 mL sample of drinking water. If detected
in drinking water, immediate action should be taken including investigation of potential
sources of faecal contamination.

“Coliforms are Gram-negative, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped bacteria that are capable of aerobic and facultative anaerobic growth in the presence of bile salts or other surface active agents with similar growth-inhibiting properties. They are found in large numbers in the faeces of humans and other warm-blooded animals, but many species also occur in the environment.

Thermotolerant coliforms are a sub-group of coliforms that are able to grow at 44.5 ± 0.2°C. E. coli is the most common thermotolerant coliform present in faeces and is regarded as the most specific indicator of recent faecal contamination because generally it is not capable of growth in the environment. In contrast, some other thermotolerant coliforms (including strains of Klebsiella, Citrobacter and Enterobacter) are able to grow in the environment and their presence is not necessarily related to faecal contamination. While tests for thermotolerant coliforms can be simpler than for E. coli, E. coli is considered a superior indicator for detecting faecal contamination…” ADWG 2011

Hammond Town Supply – South Australia

November 2016: Hammond (South Australia) – Calcium Hardness 345mg/L

NON POTABLE DRINKING WATER – Hardness

GUIDELINE

“To minimise undesirable build‑up of scale in hot water systems, total hardness (as calcium
carbonate) in drinking water should not exceed 200 mg/L.

Hard water requires more soap than soft water to obtain a lather. It can also cause scale to form on hot water pipes and fittings. Hardness is caused primarily by the presence of calcium and magnesium ions, although other cations such as strontium, iron, manganese and barium can also contribute.”

Australian Drinking Water Guidelines 2011

Hammond Town Supply – South Australia – Chloride

NON POTABLE DRINKING WATER

November 2016: Hammond Town Supply (South Australia) – Chloride 1570mg/L

Based on aesthetic considerations, the chloride concentration in drinking water should not
exceed 250 mg/L.

Chloride is present in natural waters from the dissolution of salt deposits, and contamination from effluent disposal.

Sodium chloride is widely used in the production of industrial chemicals such as caustic soda, chlorine, and sodium chlorite and hypochlorite. Potassium chloride is used in the production of fertilisers.

The taste threshold of chloride in water is dependent on the associated cation but is in the range 200–300 mg/L. The chloride content of water can affect corrosion of pipes and fittings. It can also affect the solubility of metal ions.

Australian Drinking Water Guidelines 2011

Hammond Town Supply – South Australia – Sodium

November 2016: Hammond (South Australia) – Sodium 934mg/L

NON POTABLE DRINKING WATER

GUIDELINE

“Based on aesthetic considerations (taste), the concentration of sodium in drinking water
should not exceed 180 mg/L.

No health-based guideline value is proposed for sodium. Medical practitioners treating
people with severe hypertension or congestive heart failure should be aware if the sodium
concentration in the patient’s drinking water exceeds 20 mg/L.”

Australian Drinking Water Guidelines 2011

Hammond Town Supply – South Australia – Sulphate

NON POTABLE DRINKING WATER

August 2016: Blinman (South Australia) – Sulphate 351mg/L

November 2016: Blinman (South Australia) – Sulphate 384mg/L

February 2017: Blinman (South Australia) – Sulphate 309mg/L

May 2017: Blinman (South Australia) – Sulphate 315mg/L

Based on aesthetic considerations (taste), the concentration of sulfate in drinking water
should not exceed 250 mg/L. Purgative effects may occur if the concentration exceeds 500 mg/L.

Sulfate occurs naturally in a number of minerals, and is used commercially in the manufacture of numerous products including chemicals, dyes, glass, paper, soaps, textiles, fungicides and insecticides. Sulfate, including sulfuric acid, is also used in mining, pulping, and the metal and plating industries. Barium sulfate is used as a lubricant in drilling rigs for groundwater supply.
In the water industry, aluminium sulfate (alum) is used as a flocculant in water treatment, and copper sulfate is used for the control of blue-green algae (cyanobacteria) in water storages…

The taste threshold for sulfate is in the range 250–500 mg/L. Under anoxic conditions, the reduction of sulfate to sulfide by sulfate-reducing bacteria can result in unpleasant taste and odour due to the release of hydrogen sulfide, and can increase corrosion in pipes.

Australian Drinking Water Guidelines 2011

Hammond – South Australia – Temperature

NON POTABLE DRINKING WATER

November 29 2016: Blinman (South Australia) – Temperature 24C

February 20 2016: Blinman (South Australia) – Temperature 26C

GUIDELINE

“No guideline is set due to the impracticality of controlling water temperature.
Drinking water temperatures above 20°C may result in an increase in the number of
complaints.

Temperature is primarily an aesthetic criterion for drinking water. Generally, cool water is more palatable than warm or cold water. In general, consumers will react to a change in water temperature. Complaints are most frequent when the temperature suddenly increases.

The turbidity and colour of filtered water may be indirectly affected by temperature, as low water temperatures tend to decrease the efficiency of water treatment processes by, for instance, affecting floc formation rates and sedimentation efficiency.

Chemical reaction rates increase with temperature, and this can lead to greater corrosion of pipes and fittings in closed systems. Scale formation in hard waters will also be greater at higher temperatures…

Water temperatures in major Australian reticulated supplies range from 10°C to 30°C. In some long, above-ground pipelines, water temperatures up to 45°C may be experienced…

The effectiveness of chlorine as a disinfectant is influenced by the temperature of the water being dosed. Generally higher temperatures result in more effective disinfection at a particular chlorine dose, but this may be counterbalanced by a more rapid loss of chlorine to the atmosphere (AWWA 1990).

Chlorine reacts with organic matter in water to produce undesirable chlorinated organic by-products, and higher temperatures increase the rate of these reactions.

Temperature can directly affect the growth and survival of microorganisms. In general the survival time of infectious bacteria and parasites is reduced as the temperature of the contaminated water increases.

Australian Drinking Water Guidelines 2011

Hammond – South Australia – Total Dissolved Solids

NON POTABLE DRINKING WATER

November 29 2016: Hammond (South Australia) – Total Dissolved Solids (by EC) 3400mg/L

GUIDELINE

“No specific health guideline value is provided for total dissolved solids (TDS), as there are no
health effects directly attributable to TDS. However for good palatability total dissolved solids
in drinking water should not exceed 600 mg/L.

Total dissolved solids (TDS) consist of inorganic salts and small amounts of organic matter that are dissolved in water. Clay particles, colloidal iron and manganese oxides and silica, fine enough to pass through a 0.45 micron filter membrane can also contribute to total dissolved solids.

Total dissolved solids comprise: sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, sulfate, bicarbonate, carbonate, silica, organic matter, fluoride, iron, manganese, nitrate, nitrite and phosphates…”

Australian Drinking Water Guidelines 2011