2016/21 – Quorn (South Australia) – Radioactive, Chloride, Hardness, Sodium, Total Dissolved Solids

Quorn (South Australia) – Gross Alpha Activity

23/2/21: Quorn 23/2/21 Gross Alpha Activity 0.81Bq/L

23/2/21: Quorn 23/2/21 Gross Alpha Activity (K-40 corrected) 0.364Bq/L (+-0.24)

31/5/21: Quorn 31/5/21 Gross Alpha Activity 0.68Bq/L (+-0.11)Bq/L

31/5/21: Quorn 31/5/21 Gross Alpha Activity (K-40 corrected) 0.3Bq/L (+-0.24)

Radium-226 and Radium-228 should be determined if the gross alpha radioactivity
in drinking water exceeds 0.5 Bq/L, or the gross beta activity (with the contribution of
potassium-40 subtracted) exceeds 0.5 Bq/L.
Radium isotopes are formed as a result of radioactive decay of uranium-238 and thorium-232, both of which occur naturally in the environment. The two most significant isotopes in this process, in terms of radiological health, are radium-226 (uranium series) and radium-228 (thorium series), which have half-lives of 1620 years and 5.8 years, respectively.
Radium-226 is an alpha emitter. It has been used, separated from its parent uranium, in cancer therapy.
Of the radionuclides that comprise the natural thorium and uranium series, radium-226 and radium-228 are those most likely to be found in drinking water, and this occurs more commonly in supplies derived from groundwater. Concentrations in surface water are likely to be extremely low. Concentrations of radium isotopes in groundwater vary according to the type of aquifer minerals and dissolved anions such as chloride, carbonate, and sulfate anions, which tend to increase the mobility of radium.
Radium is widespread in the environment and trace amounts are found in many foods. The average dietary intake is estimated to be 15 Bq per year (UNSCEAR 2000).
In supplies derived from groundwater sources, radium-226 and radium-228 concentrations vary
considerably depending on the aquifer, and it is not uncommon in small supplies to find concentrations up to, or exceeding, 0.5 Bq/L. Radium concentrations in Australian surface water supplies are generally below 0.02 Bq/L.

Quorn (South Australia) – Chloride

September 19 2016 Quorn (South Australia)  Chloride 423mg/L

January 9 2017 Quorn (South Australia)  Chloride 423mg/L

April 3 2017 Quorn (South Australia)  Chloride 372mg/L

June 26 2017 Quorn (South Australia)  Chloride 397mg/L

2018/19: Quorn (South Australia) Chloride 405mg/L (max), 383mg/L (av.)

30/3/20: Quorn Chloride 409mg/L (max). 2019/20 av. 390.2mg/L av.

“Chloride is present in natural waters from the dissolution of salt deposits, and contamination from effluent disposal. Sodium chloride is widely used in the production of industrial chemicals such as caustic soda, chlorine, and sodium chlorite and hypochlorite. Potassium chloride is used in the production of fertilisers.

The taste threshold of chloride in water is dependent on the associated cation but is in the range 200–300 mg/L. The chloride content of water can affect corrosion of pipes and fittings. It can also affect the solubility of metal ions.

In surface water, the concentration of chloride is usually less than 100 mg/L and frequently below 10 mg/L. Groundwater can have higher concentrations, particularly if there is salt water intrusion.

Based on aesthetic considerations, the chloride concentration in drinking water should not exceed 250 mg/L.

No health-based guideline value is proposed for chloride.” 2011 Australian Drinking Water Guidelines

Quorn – South Australia – Calcium Hardness

September 19 2016: Quorn (South Australia) – Calcium Hardness 202mg/L

2018/19: Quorn (South Australia) – Hardness 204mg/L (max), 196.5mg/L (av.)

2018/19: Quorn (South Australia) – Hardness as CaCO3 518mg/L (max), 495mg/L (av.)

2019/20: Quorn Total Hardness as CaCO3 521mg/L (max), 502.4mg/L av.

2019/20: Quorn Calcium Hardness as CaCO3 204mg/L (max), 197.5mg/L av.


“To minimise undesirable build‑up of scale in hot water systems, total hardness (as calcium
carbonate) in drinking water should not exceed 200 mg/L.

Hard water requires more soap than soft water to obtain a lather. It can also cause scale to form on hot water pipes and fittings. Hardness is caused primarily by the presence of calcium and magnesium ions, although other cations such as strontium, iron, manganese and barium can also contribute.”

Australian Drinking Water Guidelines 2011

Quorn (South Australia) – Sodium

19/9/16 Quorn  Sodium 227mg/L

9/1/17 Quorn Sodium 253mg/L

3/4/17 Quorn Sodium 229mg/L

26/6/17 Quorn Sodium 237mg/L

2018/19: Quorn (South Australia). Sodium 254mg/L (max), 233.5mg/L (av.)

30/3/20: Quorn Sodium 247mg/L (max), 236.8mg/L (av.)

“Based on aesthetic considerations (taste), the concentration of sodium in drinking water
should not exceed 180 mg/L….The sodium ion is widespread in water due to the high solubility of sodium salts and the abundance of mineral deposits. Near coastal areas, windborne sea spray can make an important contribution either by fallout onto land surfaces where it can drain to drinking water sources, or from washout by rain. Apart from saline intrusion and natural contamination, water treatment chemicals, domestic water softeners and
sewage effluent can contribute to the sodium content of drinking water.” ADWG 2011

Quorn (South Australia) – Total Dissolved Solids

2018/19: Quorn (South Australia) Total Dissolved Solids 1200mg/L (max), 1175mg/L (av)

2019/20: Quorn Total Dissolved Solids (by EC) 1210mg/L (max), 1176mg/L av.


“No specific health guideline value is provided for total dissolved solids (TDS), as there are no
health effects directly attributable to TDS. However for good palatability total dissolved solids
in drinking water should not exceed 600 mg/L.

Total dissolved solids (TDS) consist of inorganic salts and small amounts of organic matter that are dissolved in water. Clay particles, colloidal iron and manganese oxides and silica, fine enough to pass through a 0.45 micron filter membrane can also contribute to total dissolved solids.

Total dissolved solids comprise: sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, sulfate, bicarbonate, carbonate, silica, organic matter, fluoride, iron, manganese, nitrate, nitrite and phosphates…” Australian Drinking Water Guidelines 2011