2015/20 – Smithton (Tasmania) – E.coli, Mercury, Aluminium, Temperature

Smithton (Tasmania) – E.coli

September 15 2015: Smithton (Tasmania) Kings Park Sample Point – E.coli 1 MPN100/mL

November 17 2015: Smithton (Tasmania) Youngs Reserve Sample Point – E.coli 1 MPN100/mL

January 19 2016: Smithton (Tasmania) Youngs Reserve Sample Point – E.coli 28.8 MPN100/mL

January 21 2016: Smithton (Tasmania) Youngs Reserve Sample Point – E.coli 1 MPN100/mL

February 8 2016: Smithton (Tasmania) Cnr John Hill & Irishtown Rd – E.coli 3.1 MPN100/mL

March 15 2016: Smithton (Tasmania) Big Massey Res – E.coli 12 MPN100/mL

April 12 2016: Smithton (Tasmania) Scotchtown Rd – E.coli 1 MPN100/mL

28/10/19: Smithton (Tasmania) E.coli 6.2 MPN/100mL

10/11/20: Smithton (Tasmania) E.coli 3.1 MPN/100mL

Escherichia coli should not be detected in any 100 mL sample of drinking water. If detected
in drinking water, immediate action should be taken including investigation of potential
sources of faecal contamination.

“Coliforms are Gram-negative, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped bacteria that are capable of aerobic and facultative anaerobic growth in the presence of bile salts or other surface active agents with similar growth-inhibiting properties. They are found in large numbers in the faeces of humans and other warm-blooded animals, but many species also occur in the environment.

Thermotolerant coliforms are a sub-group of coliforms that are able to grow at 44.5 ± 0.2°C. E. coli is the most common thermotolerant coliform present in faeces and is regarded as the most specific indicator of recent faecal contamination because generally it is not capable of growth in the environment. In contrast, some other thermotolerant coliforms (including strains of Klebsiella, Citrobacter and Enterobacter) are able to grow in the environment and their presence is not necessarily related to faecal contamination. While tests for thermotolerant coliforms can be simpler than for E. coli, E. coli is considered a superior indicator for detecting faecal contamination…” ADWG 2011

2020 January – Smithton (Tasmania) – Mercury
17/1/20: Smithon (Tasmania) – Mercury 0.0037mg/L (Mercury dissolved 0.00276)

Mercury: Australian Drinking Water  Guideline 0.001mg/L

Mercury, if it enters the ecosystem can transform into the more toxic methylmercury where it can bioaccumulate. Methylmercury is highly toxic to human embryos, fetuses, infants and children. Mercury has numerous sources including old gold mines, where mercury was used in gold recovery process. It has been estimated that 950 tonnes of
mercury was deposited into Victorian soil, rivers and streams during the various gold rushes.

Smithton (Tasmania) – Aluminium

May 24 2016: Smithton (Tasmania) – Aluminium 0.574 mg/L

May 24 2016: Smithton (Tasmania) – Aluminium Acid Soluble 0.571 mg/L

According to the ADWG, no health guideline has been adopted for Aluminium, but that the issue is still open to review. Aluminium can come from natural geological sources or from the use of aluminium salts as coagulants in water treatment plants. According to the ADWG “A well-operated water filtration plant (even using aluminium as a flocculant) can achieve aluminium concentrations in the finished water of less than 0.1 mg/L.

The most common form of aluminium in water treatment plants is Aluminium Sulfate (Alum). Alum can be supplied as a bulk liquid or in granular form. It is used at water treatment plants as a coagulant to remove turbidity, microorganisms, organic matter and inorganic chemicals. If water is particularly dirty an Alum dose of as high as 500mg/L could occur. There is also concern that other metals may also exist in refined alum.

While the ADWG mentions that there is considerable evidence that Aluminium is neurotoxic and can pass the gut barrier to accumulate in the blood, leading to a condition called encephalopathy (dialysis dementia) and that Aluminium has been associated with Parkinsonism dementia and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, the NHMRC, whilst also acknowledging studies which have linked Aluminium with Alzheimer disease, has not granted Aluminium a NOEL (No Observable Effect Level) due to insufficient and contradictory data. Without a NOEL, a health guideline cannot be established. The NHMRC has also stated that if new information comes to hand, a health guideline may be established in the future.

In communication with Aluminium expert Dr Chris Exley (Professor in Bioinorganic Chemistry
The Birchall Centre, Lennard-Jones Laboratories, Keele University, Staffordshire UK) in March 2013 regarding high levels of Aluminium detected in the South Western Victorian town of Hamilton
“It is my opinion that any value above 0.5 mg/L is totally unacceptable and a potential health risk. Where such values are maintained over days, weeks or even months, as indeed is indicated by the data you sent to me, these represent a significant health risk to all consumers. While consumers may not experience any short term health effects the result of longer term exposure to elevated levels of aluminium in potable waters may be a significant increase in the body burden of aluminium in these individuals. This artificially increased body burden will not return to ‘normal’ levels when the Al content of the potable water returns to normal but will act as a new platform level from which the Al body burden will continue to increase with age.

Smithton – Tasmania – Temperature

January 23 2016: Smithton (Tasmania) – Temperature 20.7C

January 27 2016: Smithton (Tasmania) Youngs Reserve – Temperature 20.2C

January 27 2016: Smithton (Tasmania)  – Temperature 20.2C

February 1 2016: Smithton (Tasmania) Youngs Reserve – Temperature 21.1C

February 9 2016: Smithton (Tasmania) Youngs Reserve – Temperature 21.4C

February 9 2016: Smithton (Tasmania) – Temperature 22C

February 10 2016: Smithton (Tasmania) Youngs Reserve – Temperature 21C

February 10 2016: Smithton (Tasmania) – Temperature 21C



“No guideline is set due to the impracticality of controlling water temperature.
Drinking water temperatures above 20°C may result in an increase in the number of

Temperature is primarily an aesthetic criterion for drinking water. Generally, cool water is more palatable than warm or cold water. In general, consumers will react to a change in water temperature. Complaints are most frequent when the temperature suddenly increases.

The turbidity and colour of filtered water may be indirectly affected by temperature, as low water temperatures tend to decrease the efficiency of water treatment processes by, for instance, affecting floc formation rates and sedimentation efficiency.

Chemical reaction rates increase with temperature, and this can lead to greater corrosion of pipes and fittings in closed systems. Scale formation in hard waters will also be greater at higher temperatures…

Water temperatures in major Australian reticulated supplies range from 10°C to 30°C. In some long, above-ground pipelines, water temperatures up to 45°C may be experienced…

The effectiveness of chlorine as a disinfectant is influenced by the temperature of the water being dosed. Generally higher temperatures result in more effective disinfection at a particular chlorine dose, but this may be counterbalanced by a more rapid loss of chlorine to the atmosphere (AWWA 1990).