2013/21: Katunga (Victoria) – Turbidity, Total Dissolved Solids, Hardness

2017/18 – Katunga (Victoria) – Turbidity

2017/18 – Katunga (Victoria) – Turbidity 8.6NTU (max)

Chlorine-resistant pathogen reduction: Where filtration alone is used as the water treatment
process to address identified risks from Cryptosporidium and Giardia, it is essential
that filtration is optimised and consequently the target for the turbidity of water leaving
individual filters should be less than 0.2 NTU, and should not exceed 0.5 NTU at any time
Disinfection: A turbidity of less than 1 NTU is desirable at the time of disinfection with
chlorine unless a higher value can be validated in a specific context.

Aesthetic: Based on aesthetic considerations, the turbidity should not exceed 5 NTU at the
consumer’s tap

Katunga (Victoria)  Total Dissolved Solids

2013/14: Katunga (Victoria) – Total Dissolved Solids 1100mg/L (μS/cm)

2014/15: Katunga (Victoria) – Total Dissolved Solids 1200mg/L (μS/cm)

2015/16: Katunga (Victoria) – Total Dissolved Solids 1200mg/L (μS/cm)

2016/17: Katunga (Victoria) – Total Dissolved Solids 1200mg/L (μS/cm)

2017/18: Katunga (Victoria) – Total Dissolved Solids 1400mg/L (μS/cm)

2018/19: Katunga (Victoria) – Total Dissolved Solids 1400mg/L (μS/cm) (max)

2019/20: Katunga (Victoria) – Total Dissolved Solids 1600mg/L (μS/cm) (max)

2020/21 Katunga (Victoria) – Total Dissolved Solids 1500mg/L (μS/cm) (max). 38 non-complying samples


“No specific health guideline value is provided for total dissolved solids (TDS), as there are no
health effects directly attributable to TDS. However for good palatability total dissolved solids
in drinking water should not exceed 600 mg/L.

Total dissolved solids (TDS) consist of inorganic salts and small amounts of organic matter that are dissolved in water. Clay particles, colloidal iron and manganese oxides and silica, fine enough to pass through a 0.45 micron filter membrane can also contribute to total dissolved solids.

Katunga (Victoria) Hardness

2014/15: Katunga (Victoria) – Hardness 230mg/L (max)

2016/17: Katunga (Victoria) – Hardness 200mg/L (max)

2017/18: Katunga (Victoria) – Hardness 240mg/L (max)

2018/19: Katunga (Victoria) – Hardness 240mg/L (max)

2019/20: Katunga (Victoria) – Hardness 280mg/L (max)

2020/21: Katunga (Victoria) – Hardness 200mg/L (max)


“To minimise undesirable build‑up of scale in hot water systems, total hardness (as calcium
carbonate) in drinking water should not exceed 200 mg/L.

Hard water requires more soap than soft water to obtain a lather. It can also cause scale to form on hot water pipes and fittings. Hardness is caused primarily by the presence of calcium and magnesium ions, although other cations such as strontium, iron, manganese and barium can also contribute.”

Australian Drinking Water Guidelines 2011