2016/21: Woolundunga (South Australia) – E.coli, Naegleria Fowleri, Temperature, Total Dissolved Solids, Sodium, Chloride, Hardness

Woolundunga  (South Australia) E.coli


February 21 2017: Woolundunga (South Australia) – E.coli 6 MPN/100ml

2019/20: Woodlundunga (South Australia) E.coli positive detection from 1 out of 4 samples. Highest detection 12 MPN/100mL. (av 2019/20 3 MPN/100mL) Non-potable drinking water

15/12/20: Woolundunga Tap (South Australia) E.coli 150MPN/100mL

21/12/20: Woolundunga Tap (South Australia) E.coli 1MPN/100mL

4/1/21: Woolundunga Tap (South Australia) E.coli 1MPN/100mL

18/1/21: Woolundunga Tap (South Australia) E.coli 290MPN/100mL

9/3/21: Woolundunga Tap (South Australia) E.coli 3MPN/100mL

8/9/21: Woolundunga Customer Tap Non Potable E.coli 1 MPN/100mL

Escherichia coli should not be detected in any 100 mL sample of drinking water. If detected
in drinking water, immediate action should be taken including investigation of potential
sources of faecal contamination.

“Coliforms are Gram-negative, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped bacteria that are capable of aerobic and facultative anaerobic growth in the presence of bile salts or other surface active agents with similar growth-inhibiting properties. They are found in large numbers in the faeces of humans and other warm-blooded animals, but many species also occur in the environment.

Thermotolerant coliforms are a sub-group of coliforms that are able to grow at 44.5 ± 0.2°C. E. coli is the most common thermotolerant coliform present in faeces and is regarded as the most specific indicator of recent faecal contamination because generally it is not capable of growth in the environment. In contrast, some other thermotolerant coliforms (including strains of Klebsiella, Citrobacter and Enterobacter) are able to grow in the environment and their presence is not necessarily related to faecal contamination. While tests for thermotolerant coliforms can be simpler than for E. coli, E. coli is considered a superior indicator for detecting faecal contamination…” ADWG 2011

Woolundunga (South Australia Australia) – Naegleria Fowleri

12/1/21: Woolundunga  Naegleria Fowleri Detected (Non potable system-Non potable zone)

27/1/21: Woolundunga Naegleria Fowleri Detected (Non potable system-Non potable zone)

“GUIDELINE No guideline value is set for Naegleria fowleri in drinking water, but an ‘action level’ is recommended for water supplies likely to be contaminated. If the organism is detected, advice should be sought from the relevant health authority.

Naegleria fowleri is a free-living, thermophilic amoeboflagellate which causes the waterborne disease primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM). This rare but fatal condition has followed use of water for swimming, or domestic bathing. The organism occurs naturally in freshwater of suitable temperature, feeding on bacteria. Its occurrence is only indirectly related to human activity, inasmuch as such activity may modify temperatures or promote bacterial production. PAM has been reported from many countries, usually associated with thermally polluted environments, geothermal water or heated swimming pools. N. fowleri is almost exclusively aquatic, and water is the only known source of infection. Numerous nonvirulent Naegleria species are known in Australia.

PAM cases have been recorded from South Australia, Western Australia, Queensland and New South Wales; Naegleria fowleri has been detected in water in each of these states and in the Northern Territory. Australia is the only country where N. fowleri has been detected in public water supplies (Dorsch et al. 1983). Most of the available data on the density of N. fowleri in water relates to water supplies in South Australia (including the highest reported densities). In temperate Australia, significant seasonal cycles of density occur, from below one organism per litre to hundreds or thousands per litre in poorly disinfected water (Robinson and Christy 1984). N. fowleri detected at water temperatures below 18°C is likely to be present as cysts, which are not infectious, but which may seed a suitable environment.” Australian Drinking Water Guidelines 2011.

Woolundunga – South Australia – Total Dissolved Solids


November 22 2016: Woolundunga (South Australia) – Total Dissolved Solids (by EC) 760mg/L

11/3/20: Woolundunga (South Australia) Tap Water, Total Dissolved Solids (by EC) 1270mg/L. 2019/20 av 771.42mg/L. Non-potable drinking water

5/7/21: Woolundunga Non Potable Total Dissolved Solids 739mg/L (max), (546.7mg/L av. 2021/22)


“No specific health guideline value is provided for total dissolved solids (TDS), as there are no
health effects directly attributable to TDS. However for good palatability total dissolved solids
in drinking water should not exceed 600 mg/L.

Total dissolved solids (TDS) consist of inorganic salts and small amounts of organic matter that are dissolved in water. Clay particles, colloidal iron and manganese oxides and silica, fine enough to pass through a 0.45 micron filter membrane can also contribute to total dissolved solids.

Total dissolved solids comprise: sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, sulfate, bicarbonate, carbonate, silica, organic matter, fluoride, iron, manganese, nitrate, nitrite and phosphates…”

Australian Drinking Water Guidelines 2011

Woolundunga (South Australia) – Sodium

11/3/20: Woolundunga Tap Water, Sodium 273mg/L. 2019/20 av. 147mg/L. Non-potable drinking water

“Based on aesthetic considerations (taste), the concentration of sodium in drinking water
should not exceed 180 mg/L….The sodium ion is widespread in water due to the high solubility of sodium salts and the abundance of mineral deposits. Near coastal areas, windborne sea spray can make an important contribution either by fallout onto land surfaces where it can drain to drinking water sources, or from washout by rain. Apart from saline intrusion and natural contamination, water treatment chemicals, domestic water softeners and
sewage effluent can contribute to the sodium content of drinking water.” ADWG 2011


Woolundunga (South Australia) – Chloride

11/3/20: Woolundunga (South Australia) Tap Water, Chloride 467mg/L. Non-potable drinking water

“Chloride is present in natural waters from the dissolution of salt deposits, and contamination from effluent disposal. Sodium chloride is widely used in the production of industrial chemicals such as caustic soda, chlorine, and sodium chlorite and hypochlorite. Potassium chloride is used in the production of fertilisers.

The taste threshold of chloride in water is dependent on the associated cation but is in the range 200–300 mg/L. The chloride content of water can affect corrosion of pipes and fittings. It can also affect the solubility of metal ions.

In surface water, the concentration of chloride is usually less than 100 mg/L and frequently below 10 mg/L. Groundwater can have higher concentrations, particularly if there is salt water intrusion.

Based on aesthetic considerations, the chloride concentration in drinking water should not exceed 250 mg/L.

No health-based guideline value is proposed for chloride.” 2011 Australian Drinking Water Guidelines

Woolundunga –  (South Australia) – Hardness

11/3/20: Woolundunga (South Australia) Tap Water, Hardness 528mg/L. 2019/20 av 422.25mg/L. Non-potable drinking water

8/9/21: Woolundunga Non Potable Hardness as CaCO3 428mg/L (max), (241mg/L av. 2021/22)


“To minimise undesirable build‑up of scale in hot water systems, total hardness (as calcium
carbonate) in drinking water should not exceed 200 mg/L.

Hard water requires more soap than soft water to obtain a lather. It can also cause scale to form on hot water pipes and fittings. Hardness is caused primarily by the presence of calcium and magnesium ions, although other cations such as strontium, iron, manganese and barium can also contribute.”

Australian Drinking Water Guidelines 2011

Woolundunga – South Australia – Temperature


November 22 2016: Woolundunga (South Australia) – Temperature 23C

February 21 2016: Woolundunga (South Australia) – Temperature 25C

Woolundunga Non Potable Temperature 8/11/21-12/4/22 >20C. 7/2/22 32C (max)


“No guideline is set due to the impracticality of controlling water temperature.
Drinking water temperatures above 20°C may result in an increase in the number of

Temperature is primarily an aesthetic criterion for drinking water. Generally, cool water is more palatable than warm or cold water. In general, consumers will react to a change in water temperature. Complaints are most frequent when the temperature suddenly increases.

The turbidity and colour of filtered water may be indirectly affected by temperature, as low water temperatures tend to decrease the efficiency of water treatment processes by, for instance, affecting floc formation rates and sedimentation efficiency.

Chemical reaction rates increase with temperature, and this can lead to greater corrosion of pipes and fittings in closed systems. Scale formation in hard waters will also be greater at higher temperatures…

Water temperatures in major Australian reticulated supplies range from 10°C to 30°C. In some long, above-ground pipelines, water temperatures up to 45°C may be experienced…

The effectiveness of chlorine as a disinfectant is influenced by the temperature of the water being dosed. Generally higher temperatures result in more effective disinfection at a particular chlorine dose, but this may be counterbalanced by a more rapid loss of chlorine to the atmosphere (AWWA 1990).

Chlorine reacts with organic matter in water to produce undesirable chlorinated organic by-products, and higher temperatures increase the rate of these reactions.

Temperature can directly affect the growth and survival of microorganisms. In general the survival time of infectious bacteria and parasites is reduced as the temperature of the contaminated water increases. (ADWG 2011)