Kilkenny (South Australia) – Mercury
June 19 2017 – Kilkenny (South Australia) – Mercury 0.00138mg/L
Mercury: Australian Drinking Water Guideline 0.001mg/L
Mercury, if it enters the ecosystem can transform into the more toxic methylmercury where it can bioaccumulate. Methylmercury is highly toxic to human embryos, fetuses, infants and children. Mercury has numerous sources including old gold mines, where mercury was used in gold recovery process. It has been estimated that 950 tonnes of
mercury was deposited into Victorian soil, rivers and streams during the various gold rushes.
Kilkenny (South Australia) – Trihalomethanes
Breaches to Australian Drinking Water Guidelines Levels Only
27/2/2017 Kilkenny Yallum Tce Trihalomethanes – Total 273 ug/L
27/3/2017 Kilkenny Yallum Tce Trihalomethanes – Total 264 ug/L
18-Dec-17 Kilkenny Trihalomethanes – Total 267 µg/L
Trihalomethanes Australian Guideline Level 250μg/L (0.25mg/L)
Why and how are THMs formed?
“When chlorine is added to water with organic material, such as algae, river weeds, and decaying leaves, THMs are formed. Residual chlorine molecules react with this harmless organic material to form a group of chlorinated chemical compounds, THMs. They are tasteless and odourless, but harmful and potentially toxic. The quantity of by-products formed is determined by several factors, such as the amount and type of organic material present in water, temperature, pH, chlorine dosage, contact time available for chlorine, and bromide concentration in the water. The organic matter in water mainly consists of a) humic substance, which is the organic portion of soil that remains after prolonged microbial decomposition formed by the decay of leaves, wood, and other vegetable matter; and b) fulvic acid, which is a water soluble substance of low molecular weight that is derived from humus”. Source: https://water.epa.gov/drink/contaminants/in
Kilkenny (South Australia) – Total Haloacetic Acid’s
31/12/18: Kilkekenny (South Australia) Total Haloacetic Acid (HAA7) 109 ug/L
20/6/22: Kilkenny (South Australia) Total Haloacetic Acid (HAA 9) 120ug/L (max) 109ug/L (av. 2021/22)
Australian Guidelines Trichloroacetic Acid 0.100mg/L, Dichloroacetic Acid 0.100mg/L
“Chloroacetic acids are produced in drinking water as by-products of the reaction between chlorine and naturally occurring humic and fulvic acids. Concentrations reported overseas range up to 0.16mg/L and are typically about half the chloroform concentration. The chloroacetic acids are used commercially as reagents or intermediates in the preparation of a wide variety of chemicals. Monochloroacetic acid can be used as a pre-emergent herbicide, dichloroacetic acid as an ingredient in some pharmaceutical products, and trichloroacetic acid as a herbicide, soil sterilant and antiseptic.” Australian Drinking Water Guidelines – National Health and Medical Research Council…
Kilkenny (South Australia) – Bromodichloromethane
25/1/22: Kilkenny (South Australia) Bromodichloromethane 67ug/L (max), 49.83ug/L (av.)
WHO Guideline level BDCM: 60ug/L (Australian Guideline for BDCM is included in the Trihalomethane (THM) combined total of BDCM, Chloroform, Dibromochloromethane and Bromoform. THM guideline is 250ug/L)
“Carcinogenicity : Bromodichloromethane is reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity from studies in experimental animals.
Cancer Studies in Experimental Animals: Oral exposure to bromodichloromethane caused tumors at several different tissue sites in mice and rats. Administration of bromodichloromethane by stomach tube caused benign and malignant kidney tumors (tubular-cell adenoma and adenocarcinoma) in male mice and in rats of both sexes, benign and
malignant liver tumors (hepatocellular adenoma and carcinoma) in female mice, and benign and malignant colon tumors (adenomatous polyps and adenocarcinoma) in rats of both sexes (NTP 1987, ATSDR 1989, IARC 1991, 1999).