2014-17 – Mallala (South Australia) – Chloral Hydrate, Dichloroacetic Acid, Trihalomethanes, Temperature

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Mallala (South Australia) – Chloral Hydrate

19/1/17 Mallala  Chloral Hydrate 113ug/L

27/1/17 Mallala  Chloral Hydrate 153ug/L

23/2/17 Mallala  Chloral Hydrate 196ug/L

Chloral hydrate is a disinfection by-product, arising from chlorination of water containing naturally occurring organic material (NOM). Chloral hydrate is a sedative and hypnotic drug. Long-term use of chloral hydrate is associated with a rapid development of tolerance to its effects and possible addiction as well as adverse effects including rashes, gastric
discomfort and severe renal, cardiac and hepatic failure.

2011 Australian Drinking Water Guideline: Trichloroacetaldehyde (chloral hydrate): 0.1mg/L

Mallala (South Australia) – Dichloroacetic Acid

January 27 2017 Mallala (South Australia) – Dichoroacetic Acid 103ug/L

February 23 2017 Mallala (South Australia) – Dichoroacetic Acid 160ug/L

Australian Guideline Level: Dichloroacetic Acid 0.100mg/L

“Chloroacetic acids are produced in drinking water as by-products of the reaction between chlorine and naturally occurring humic and fulvic acids. Concentrations reported overseas range up to 0.16mg/L and are typically about half the chloroform concentration. The chloroacetic acids are used commercially as reagents or intermediates in the preparation of a wide variety of chemicals. Monochloroacetic acid can be used as a pre-emergent herbicide, dichloroacetic acid as an ingredient in some pharmaceutical products, and trichloroacetic acid as a herbicide, soil sterilant and antiseptic.” Australian Drinking Water Guidelines – National Health and Medical Research Council

Mallala (South Australia) – Trihalomethanes

Breaches to Australian Drinking Water Guidelines Levels Only

25/11/2013 Mallala – Adelaide Rd Trihalomethanes – Total 254 ug/L

6/1/2014 Mallala – Adelaide Rd Trihalomethanes – Total 262 ug/L

17/2/2014 Mallala – Adelaide Rd Trihalomethanes – Total 277 ug/L

17/3/2014 Mallala – Adelaide Rd Trihalomethanes – Total 271 ug/L

Trihalomethanes Australian Guideline Level 250μg/L (0.25mg/L)

Why and how are THMs formed?
“When chlorine is added to water with organic material, such as algae, river weeds, and decaying leaves, THMs are formed. Residual chlorine molecules react with this harmless organic material to form a group of chlorinated chemical compounds, THMs. They are tasteless and odourless, but harmful and potentially toxic. The quantity of by-products formed is determined by several factors, such as the amount and type of organic material present in water, temperature, pH, chlorine dosage, contact time available for chlorine, and bromide concentration in the water. The organic matter in water mainly consists of a) humic substance, which is the organic portion of soil that remains after prolonged microbial decomposition formed by the decay of leaves, wood, and other vegetable matter; and b) fulvic acid, which is a water soluble substance of low molecular weight that is derived from humus”. Source: http://water.epa.gov/drink/contaminants/in

Mallala – South Australia – Temperature

November 21 2016: Mallala (South Australia) Adelaide Rd – Temperature 21C

December 1 2016: Mallala (South Australia) Adelaide Rd – Temperature 21C

December 8 2016: Mallala (South Australia) Adelaide Rd – Temperature 21C

December 13 2016: Mallala (South Australia) Adelaide Rd – Temperature 21C

December 22 2016: Mallala (South Australia) Adelaide Rd – Temperature 21C

December 30 2016: Mallala (South Australia) Adelaide Rd – Temperature 23C

January 6 2017: Mallala (South Australia) Adelaide Rd – Temperature 24C

January 12 2017: Mallala (South Australia) Adelaide Rd – Temperature 25C

January 19 2017: Mallala (South Australia) Adelaide Rd – Temperature 26C

January 27 2017: Mallala (South Australia) Adelaide Rd – Temperature 24C

February 2 2017: Mallala (South Australia) Adelaide Rd – Temperature 25C

February 10 2017: Mallala (South Australia) Adelaide Rd – Temperature 26C

February 16 2017: Mallala (South Australia) Adelaide Rd – Temperature 25C

February 23 2017: Mallala (South Australia) Adelaide Rd – Temperature 22C

March 2 2017: Mallala (South Australia) Adelaide Rd – Temperature 23C

March 9 2017: Mallala (South Australia) Adelaide Rd – Temperature 23C

March 17 2017: Mallala (South Australia) Adelaide Rd – Temperature 23C

March 23 2017: Mallala (South Australia) Adelaide Rd – Temperature 23C

March 30 2017: Mallala (South Australia) Adelaide Rd – Temperature 22C

April 7 2017: Mallala (South Australia) Adelaide Rd – Temperature 21C

GUIDELINE

“No guideline is set due to the impracticality of controlling water temperature.
Drinking water temperatures above 20°C may result in an increase in the number of
complaints.

Temperature is primarily an aesthetic criterion for drinking water. Generally, cool water is more palatable than warm or cold water. In general, consumers will react to a change in water temperature. Complaints are most frequent when the temperature suddenly increases.

The turbidity and colour of filtered water may be indirectly affected by temperature, as low water temperatures tend to decrease the efficiency of water treatment processes by, for instance, affecting floc formation rates and sedimentation efficiency.

Chemical reaction rates increase with temperature, and this can lead to greater corrosion of pipes and fittings in closed systems. Scale formation in hard waters will also be greater at higher temperatures…

Water temperatures in major Australian reticulated supplies range from 10°C to 30°C. In some long, above-ground pipelines, water temperatures up to 45°C may be experienced…

The effectiveness of chlorine as a disinfectant is influenced by the temperature of the water being dosed. Generally higher temperatures result in more effective disinfection at a particular chlorine dose, but this may be counterbalanced by a more rapid loss of chlorine to the atmosphere (AWWA 1990).