2016/17: Maree Camp (South Australia) – Fluoride, Chloride, Sodium, Temperature, Total Dissolved Solids

Maree Camp – South Australia – Fluoride

NON POTABLE SUPPLY

Based on health considerations, the concentration of fluoride in drinking water should not exceed 1.5 mg/L.

“Fluoride occurs naturally in seawater (1.4 mg/L), soil (up to 300 parts per million) and air (from volcanic gases and industrial pollution). Naturally occurring fluoride concentrations in drinking water depend on the type of soil and rock through which the water drains. Generally, concentrations in surface water are relatively low (<0.1–0.5 mg/L), while water from deeper wells may have quite high concentrations (1–10 mg/L) if the rock formations are fluoride-rich.” 2011 ADWG

2016 November: Maree Camp (South Australia) – Fluoride 4.3mg/L

2017 March: Maree Camp (South Australia) – Fluoride 5mg/L

2017 June: Maree Camp (South Australia) – Fluoride 4.2mg/L

2016 August: Maree  (South Australia) – Fluoride 4.6mg/L

Maree Camp – South Australia – Chloride

March 2017: Maree Camp (South Australia) – Chloride 657mg/L

NON POTABLE SUPPLY

Based on aesthetic considerations, the chloride concentration in drinking water should not
exceed 250 mg/L.

Chloride is present in natural waters from the dissolution of salt deposits, and contamination from effluent disposal.

Sodium chloride is widely used in the production of industrial chemicals such as caustic soda, chlorine, and sodium chlorite and hypochlorite. Potassium chloride is used in the production of fertilisers.

The taste threshold of chloride in water is dependent on the associated cation but is in the range 200–300 mg/L. The chloride content of water can affect corrosion of pipes and fittings. It can also affect the solubility of metal ions.

Australian Drinking Water Guidelines 2011

Maree – South Australia – Sodium

March 2017: Maree (South Australia) – Sodium 892mg/L

NON POTABLE DRINKING WATER

GUIDELINE

“Based on aesthetic considerations (taste), the concentration of sodium in drinking water
should not exceed 180 mg/L.

No health-based guideline value is proposed for sodium. Medical practitioners treating
people with severe hypertension or congestive heart failure should be aware if the sodium
concentration in the patient’s drinking water exceeds 20 mg/L.”

Australian Drinking Water Guidelines 2011

Maree – South Australia – Temperature

NON POTABLE DRINKING WATER

November 23 2016: Marla (South Australia) – Temperature 28C

March 8 2017: Marla (South Australia) – Temperature 32C

GUIDELINE

“No guideline is set due to the impracticality of controlling water temperature.
Drinking water temperatures above 20°C may result in an increase in the number of
complaints.

Temperature is primarily an aesthetic criterion for drinking water. Generally, cool water is more palatable than warm or cold water. In general, consumers will react to a change in water temperature. Complaints are most frequent when the temperature suddenly increases.

The turbidity and colour of filtered water may be indirectly affected by temperature, as low water temperatures tend to decrease the efficiency of water treatment processes by, for instance, affecting floc formation rates and sedimentation efficiency.

Chemical reaction rates increase with temperature, and this can lead to greater corrosion of pipes and fittings in closed systems. Scale formation in hard waters will also be greater at higher temperatures…

Water temperatures in major Australian reticulated supplies range from 10°C to 30°C. In some long, above-ground pipelines, water temperatures up to 45°C may be experienced…

The effectiveness of chlorine as a disinfectant is influenced by the temperature of the water being dosed. Generally higher temperatures result in more effective disinfection at a particular chlorine dose, but this may be counterbalanced by a more rapid loss of chlorine to the atmosphere (AWWA 1990).

Chlorine reacts with organic matter in water to produce undesirable chlorinated organic by-products, and higher temperatures increase the rate of these reactions.

Temperature can directly affect the growth and survival of microorganisms. In general the survival time of infectious bacteria and parasites is reduced as the temperature of the contaminated water increases.

Australian Drinking Water Guidelines 2011

Maree – South Australia – Total Dissolved Solids

NON POTABLE DRINKING WATER

March 8 2017: Maree (South Australia) – Total Dissolved Solids (by EC) 1900mg/L

GUIDELINE

“No specific health guideline value is provided for total dissolved solids (TDS), as there are no
health effects directly attributable to TDS. However for good palatability total dissolved solids
in drinking water should not exceed 600 mg/L.

Total dissolved solids (TDS) consist of inorganic salts and small amounts of organic matter that are dissolved in water. Clay particles, colloidal iron and manganese oxides and silica, fine enough to pass through a 0.45 micron filter membrane can also contribute to total dissolved solids.

Total dissolved solids comprise: sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, sulfate, bicarbonate, carbonate, silica, organic matter, fluoride, iron, manganese, nitrate, nitrite and phosphates…”

Australian Drinking Water Guidelines 2011