2016/17: Peak Spring (South Australia) – Selenium, E.coli, Chloride, Colour, Temperature, Total Dissolved Solids

Peak Spring – South Australia – Selenium

November 2016: Peak Spring (South Australia) – Selenium 0.0162mg/L

February 2017: Peak Spring (South Australia) – Selenium 0.0121mg/L

NON POTABLE DRINKING WATER

GUIDELINE

“Based on health considerations, the concentration of selenium in drinking water should not
exceed 0.01 mg/L.

Selenium and selenium salts are widespread in the environment. Selenium is released from natural and human-made sources, with the main source being the burning of coal. Selenium is also a by-product of the processing of sulfide ores, chiefly in the copper refining industry.

The major use of selenium is in the manufacture of electronic components. It is used in several other industries, and selenium compounds are used in some insecticides, in hair shampoos as an anti-dandruff agent, and as a nutritional feed additive for poultry and livestock.

Selenium concentrations in source waters are generally very low and depend on local geochemistry, pH and the presence of iron salts. Concentrations in drinking water supplies overseas are generally below 0.01 mg/L but groundwater concentrations as high as 6 mg/L have been reported in the United States.”

Australian Drinking Water Guidelines 2011

Peak Spring – South Australia E.coli

NON POTABLE SUPPLY

Aug 2016: Peak Spring Carinya Lane (South Australia) – E.coli 5 MPN/100ml

Nov 2016: Peak Spring Carinya Lane (South Australia) – E.coli 37 MPN/100ml

Feb 2017: Peak Spring Carinya Lane (South Australia) – E.coli 61 MPN/100ml

May 2017: Peak Spring Carinya Lane (South Australia) – E.coli 200 MPN/100ml

Aug 2016: Peak Spring Hoyleton North Road (South Australia) – E.coli 10 MPN/100ml

Nov 2016: Peak Spring Hoyleton North Road (South Australia) – E.coli 110 MPN/100ml

Feb 2017: Peak Spring Hoyleton North Road (South Australia) – E.coli 99 MPN/100ml

May 2017: Peak Spring Hoyleton North Road (South Australia) – E.coli 44 MPN/100ml

Escherichia coli should not be detected in any 100 mL sample of drinking water. If detected
in drinking water, immediate action should be taken including investigation of potential
sources of faecal contamination.

“Coliforms are Gram-negative, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped bacteria that are capable of aerobic and facultative anaerobic growth in the presence of bile salts or other surface active agents with similar growth-inhibiting properties. They are found in large numbers in the faeces of humans and other warm-blooded animals, but many species also occur in the environment.

Thermotolerant coliforms are a sub-group of coliforms that are able to grow at 44.5 ± 0.2°C. E. coli is the most common thermotolerant coliform present in faeces and is regarded as the most specific indicator of recent faecal contamination because generally it is not capable of growth in the environment. In contrast, some other thermotolerant coliforms (including strains of Klebsiella, Citrobacter and Enterobacter) are able to grow in the environment and their presence is not necessarily related to faecal contamination. While tests for thermotolerant coliforms can be simpler than for E. coli, E. coli is considered a superior indicator for detecting faecal contamination…” ADWG 2011

Peak Spring – South Australia – Chloride

May 2017: Peak Spring Hoyleton North Rd (South Australia) – Chloride 320mg/L

NON POTABLE SUPPLY

Based on aesthetic considerations, the chloride concentration in drinking water should not
exceed 250 mg/L.

Chloride is present in natural waters from the dissolution of salt deposits, and contamination from effluent disposal.

Sodium chloride is widely used in the production of industrial chemicals such as caustic soda, chlorine, and sodium chlorite and hypochlorite. Potassium chloride is used in the production of fertilisers.

The taste threshold of chloride in water is dependent on the associated cation but is in the range 200–300 mg/L. The chloride content of water can affect corrosion of pipes and fittings. It can also affect the solubility of metal ions.

Australian Drinking Water Guidelines 2011

Peak Spring – South Australia – Colour

August 2016: Peak Spring Hoyleton North Rd (South Australia) – Colour 21 HU

August 2016: Peak Spring Hoyleton North Rd (South Australia) – Colour 27 HU

NON POTABLE SUPPLY

Based on aesthetic considerations, true colour in drinking water should not exceed 15 HU.

“… Colour is generally related to organic content, and while colour derived from natural sources such as humic and fulvic acids is not a health consideration, chlorination of such water can produce a variety of chlorinated organic compounds as by-products (see Section 6.3.2 on disinfection by-products). If the colour is high at the time of disinfection, then the water should be checked for disinfection by-products. It should be noted, however, that low colour at the time of disinfection does not necessarily mean that the concentration of disinfection by-products will be low…”

Australian Drinking Water Guidelines 2011

Peak Spring – South Australia – Temperature

NON POTABLE DRINKING WATER

November 21 2016: Peak Spring Carinya Lane (South Australia) – Temperature 23C

February 20 2017: Peak Spring Carinya Lane (South Australia) – Temperature 24C

November 21 2016: Peak Spring Hoyleton Road North (South Australia) – Temperature 22C

February 20 2017: Peak Spring Hoyleton Road North (South Australia) – Temperature 23C

 

GUIDELINE

“No guideline is set due to the impracticality of controlling water temperature.
Drinking water temperatures above 20°C may result in an increase in the number of
complaints.

Temperature is primarily an aesthetic criterion for drinking water. Generally, cool water is more palatable than warm or cold water. In general, consumers will react to a change in water temperature. Complaints are most frequent when the temperature suddenly increases.

The turbidity and colour of filtered water may be indirectly affected by temperature, as low water temperatures tend to decrease the efficiency of water treatment processes by, for instance, affecting floc formation rates and sedimentation efficiency.

Chemical reaction rates increase with temperature, and this can lead to greater corrosion of pipes and fittings in closed systems. Scale formation in hard waters will also be greater at higher temperatures…

Water temperatures in major Australian reticulated supplies range from 10°C to 30°C. In some long, above-ground pipelines, water temperatures up to 45°C may be experienced…

The effectiveness of chlorine as a disinfectant is influenced by the temperature of the water being dosed. Generally higher temperatures result in more effective disinfection at a particular chlorine dose, but this may be counterbalanced by a more rapid loss of chlorine to the atmosphere (AWWA 1990).

Chlorine reacts with organic matter in water to produce undesirable chlorinated organic by-products, and higher temperatures increase the rate of these reactions.

Temperature can directly affect the growth and survival of microorganisms. In general the survival time of infectious bacteria and parasites is reduced as the temperature of the contaminated water increases.

Australian Drinking Water Guidelines 2011

Peak Spring – South Australia – Total Dissolved Solids

NON POTABLE DRINKING WATER

May 15 2017: Peak Spring (South Australia) – Total Dissolved Solids (by EC) 1100mg/L

GUIDELINE

“No specific health guideline value is provided for total dissolved solids (TDS), as there are no
health effects directly attributable to TDS. However for good palatability total dissolved solids
in drinking water should not exceed 600 mg/L.

Total dissolved solids (TDS) consist of inorganic salts and small amounts of organic matter that are dissolved in water. Clay particles, colloidal iron and manganese oxides and silica, fine enough to pass through a 0.45 micron filter membrane can also contribute to total dissolved solids.

Total dissolved solids comprise: sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, sulfate, bicarbonate, carbonate, silica, organic matter, fluoride, iron, manganese, nitrate, nitrite and phosphates…”

Australian Drinking Water Guidelines 2011