2016/17: Woolshed Flat (South Australia) – Uranium, E.coli, Calcium Hardness, Chloride, Sodium, Temperature, Total Dissolved Solids

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Woolshed Flat – South Australia E.coli


Nov 2016: Woolshed Flat (South Australia) – E.coli 2400 MPN/100ml

May 2017: Woolshed Flat (South Australia) – E.coli 8 MPN/100ml

Escherichia coli should not be detected in any 100 mL sample of drinking water. If detected
in drinking water, immediate action should be taken including investigation of potential
sources of faecal contamination.

“Coliforms are Gram-negative, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped bacteria that are capable of aerobic and facultative anaerobic growth in the presence of bile salts or other surface active agents with similar growth-inhibiting properties. They are found in large numbers in the faeces of humans and other warm-blooded animals, but many species also occur in the environment.

Thermotolerant coliforms are a sub-group of coliforms that are able to grow at 44.5 ± 0.2°C. E. coli is the most common thermotolerant coliform present in faeces and is regarded as the most specific indicator of recent faecal contamination because generally it is not capable of growth in the environment. In contrast, some other thermotolerant coliforms (including strains of Klebsiella, Citrobacter and Enterobacter) are able to grow in the environment and their presence is not necessarily related to faecal contamination. While tests for thermotolerant coliforms can be simpler than for E. coli, E. coli is considered a superior indicator for detecting faecal contamination…” ADWG 2011

Woolshed Flat – South Australia – Uranium

August 23 2016: Woolshed Flat (South Australia) – Uranium 0.0301mg/L

November 22 2016: Woolshed Flat (South Australia) – Uranium 0.0344mg/L

February 20 2017: Woolshed Flat (South Australia) – Uranium 0.0284mg/L

May 16 2017: Woolshed Flat (South Australia) – Uranium 0.0281mg/L



“Based on health considerations, the concentration of uranium in drinking water should not
exceed 0.017 mg/L.

Uranium may be present in the environment as a result of leaching from soils, rocks and natural deposits, release in mill tailings, combustion of coal and other fuels, and use of phosphate fertilisers (which can contain as much as 150 mg/kg uranium). Naturally occurring uranium is a mixture of three radionuclides, U-238, U-234, and U-235. U-238 and U-234 decay predominantly by alpha particle emission, whereas U-235 emits both gamma rays and alpha particles. Natural uranium consists almost entirely of the U-238 isotope, the other isotopes being less than 1% abundant. Uranium is used primarily as a fuel in nuclear power plants.

Studies overseas have reported uranium concentrations in drinking water of generally less than
0.001 mg/L; however, concentrations as high as 0.7 mg/L have been reported in some private water supplies in Canada.

Food is the major source of uranium intake and highest concentrations are found in shellfish.
Dietary intake of uranium through food is estimated between 0.001 and 0.004 mg/day (WHO 2004). Intake through drinking water is normally low; however, drinking water can contribute the majority of daily intake in circumstances in which uranium is present at higher concentrations (WHO 2004).

Australian Drinking Water Guidelines 2011

Woolshed Flat – South Australia – Hardness

May 2017: Woolshed Flat (South Australia) – Calcium Hardness 517mg/L



“To minimise undesirable build‑up of scale in hot water systems, total hardness (as calcium
carbonate) in drinking water should not exceed 200 mg/L.

Hard water requires more soap than soft water to obtain a lather. It can also cause scale to form on hot water pipes and fittings. Hardness is caused primarily by the presence of calcium and magnesium ions, although other cations such as strontium, iron, manganese and barium can also contribute.”

Australian Drinking Water Guidelines 2011

Woolshed Flat – South Australia – Chloride

May 2017: Woolshed Flat (South Australia) – Chloride 1330mg/L


Based on aesthetic considerations, the chloride concentration in drinking water should not
exceed 250 mg/L.

Chloride is present in natural waters from the dissolution of salt deposits, and contamination from effluent disposal.

Sodium chloride is widely used in the production of industrial chemicals such as caustic soda, chlorine, and sodium chlorite and hypochlorite. Potassium chloride is used in the production of fertilisers.

The taste threshold of chloride in water is dependent on the associated cation but is in the range 200–300 mg/L. The chloride content of water can affect corrosion of pipes and fittings. It can also affect the solubility of metal ions.

Australian Drinking Water Guidelines 2011

Woolshed Flat – South Australia – Sodium

May 2017: Woolshed Flat (South Australia) – Sodium 560mg/L



“Based on aesthetic considerations (taste), the concentration of sodium in drinking water
should not exceed 180 mg/L.

No health-based guideline value is proposed for sodium. Medical practitioners treating
people with severe hypertension or congestive heart failure should be aware if the sodium
concentration in the patient’s drinking water exceeds 20 mg/L.”

Australian Drinking Water Guidelines 2011

Woolshed Flat – South Australia – Temperature



February 20 2017: Peak Spring Hoyleton Road North (South Australia) – Temperature 25C


“No guideline is set due to the impracticality of controlling water temperature.
Drinking water temperatures above 20°C may result in an increase in the number of

Temperature is primarily an aesthetic criterion for drinking water. Generally, cool water is more palatable than warm or cold water. In general, consumers will react to a change in water temperature. Complaints are most frequent when the temperature suddenly increases.

The turbidity and colour of filtered water may be indirectly affected by temperature, as low water temperatures tend to decrease the efficiency of water treatment processes by, for instance, affecting floc formation rates and sedimentation efficiency.

Chemical reaction rates increase with temperature, and this can lead to greater corrosion of pipes and fittings in closed systems. Scale formation in hard waters will also be greater at higher temperatures…

Water temperatures in major Australian reticulated supplies range from 10°C to 30°C. In some long, above-ground pipelines, water temperatures up to 45°C may be experienced…

The effectiveness of chlorine as a disinfectant is influenced by the temperature of the water being dosed. Generally higher temperatures result in more effective disinfection at a particular chlorine dose, but this may be counterbalanced by a more rapid loss of chlorine to the atmosphere (AWWA 1990).

Chlorine reacts with organic matter in water to produce undesirable chlorinated organic by-products, and higher temperatures increase the rate of these reactions.

Temperature can directly affect the growth and survival of microorganisms. In general the survival time of infectious bacteria and parasites is reduced as the temperature of the contaminated water increases.

Australian Drinking Water Guidelines 2011

Woolshed Flat – South Australia – Total Dissolved Solids


May 16 2017: Woolshed Flat (South Australia) – Total Dissolved Solids (by EC) 2600mg/L


“No specific health guideline value is provided for total dissolved solids (TDS), as there are no
health effects directly attributable to TDS. However for good palatability total dissolved solids
in drinking water should not exceed 600 mg/L.

Total dissolved solids (TDS) consist of inorganic salts and small amounts of organic matter that are dissolved in water. Clay particles, colloidal iron and manganese oxides and silica, fine enough to pass through a 0.45 micron filter membrane can also contribute to total dissolved solids.

Total dissolved solids comprise: sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, sulfate, bicarbonate, carbonate, silica, organic matter, fluoride, iron, manganese, nitrate, nitrite and phosphates…”

Australian Drinking Water Guidelines 2011