Mannum – Adelaide Pipeline after Pump Station No 2 Palmer. (South Australia) – E.coli – Non Potable
2019/20: Mannum – Adelaide Pipeline after Pump Station No 2 Palmer. E.coli positive detections from 3 out of 4 samples. Highest detection 45 MPN/100mL. (av 2019/20 23.25 MPN/100mL) Non potable drinking water
28/2/20: Mannum-Adelaide Pipeline after Pump Station No.2 Palmer E.coli 28MPN/100mL (Non potable system-Non potable zone)
17/11/20: Mannum-Adelaide Pipeline after Pump Station No.2 Palmer E.coli 21MPN/100mL (Non potable system-Non potable zone)
15/2/21: Mannum-Adelaide Pipeline after Pump Station No.2 Palmer E.coli 14MPN/100mL (Non potable system-Non potable zone)
19/5/21: Mannum-Adelaide Pipeline after Pump Station No.2 Palmer E.coli 6MPN/100mL (Non potable system-Non potable zone)
Thermotolerant coliforms are a sub-group of coliforms that are able to grow at 44.5 ± 0.2°C. E. coli is the most common thermotolerant coliform present in faeces and is regarded as the most specific indicator of recent faecal contamination because generally it is not capable of growth in the environment. In contrast, some other thermotolerant coliforms (including strains of Klebsiella, Citrobacter and Enterobacter) are able to grow in the environment and their presence is not necessarily related to faecal contamination. While tests for thermotolerant coliforms can be simpler than for E. coli, E. coli is considered a superior indicator for detecting faecal contamination…” ADWG
Mannum – Adelaide Pipeline after Pump Station No 2 Palmer. (South Australia) – Turbidity – Non Potable
16/7/19: Mannum – Adelaide Pipeline after Pump Station No 2 Palmer, Turbidity 63NTU. 2019/20 av. 39.92 NTU Non-potable drinking water
16/6/22: Mannum – Adelaide Pipeline after Pump Station No 2 Palmer Non Potable Turbidity 100 NTU (max) (62.49 NTU av. 2021/22)
From a total of 115 samples, two exceedances of turbidity have occurred from 2003 to 2013. The exceedances of 29.6 and 6 NTU occurred on 21 Jan 2004 and 8 Jul 2009, respectively.
Chlorine-resistant pathogen reduction: Where filtration alone is used as the water treatment
process to address identified risks from Cryptosporidium and Giardia, it is essential
that filtration is optimised and consequently the target for the turbidity of water leaving
individual filters should be less than 0.2 NTU, and should not exceed 0.5 NTU at any time
Disinfection: A turbidity of less than 1 NTU is desirable at the time of disinfection with
chlorine unless a higher value can be validated in a specific context.
Aesthetic: Based on aesthetic considerations, the turbidity should not exceed 5 NTU at the
Mannum – Adelaide Pipeline after Pump Station No 2 Palmer. (South Australia) – Iron – Non Potable
16/7/19: Mannum – Adelaide Pipeline after Pump Station No 2 Palmer, Iron 5.971mg/L. 2019/20 av 3.094mg/L Non-potable drinking water
18/10/21: Mannum – Adelaide Pipeline after Pump Station No 2 Palmer Non Potable Iron 5.328 mg/L (max). (3.352 mg/L av. 2021-22)
Based on aesthetic considerations (precipitation of iron from solution and taste),
the concentration of iron in drinking water should not exceed 0.3 mg/L.
No health-based guideline value has been set for iron.
Iron has a taste threshold of about 0.3 mg/L in water, and becomes objectionable above 3 mg/L. High iron concentrations give water an undesirable rust-brown appearance and can cause staining of laundry and plumbing fittings, fouling of ion-exchange softeners, and blockages in irrigation systems. Growths of iron bacteria, which concentrate iron, may cause taste and odour problems and lead to pipe restrictions, blockages and corrosion. ADWG 2011
Mannum – Adelaide Pipeline after Pump Station No 2 Palmer. Non Potable – Aluminium
20/8/19: Mannum – Adelaide Pipeline after Pump Station No 2 Palmer. Aluminium 4.622mg/L. Non-potable drinking water
18/8/21: Mannum – Adelaide Pipeline after Pump Station No 2 Palmer Non Potable Aluminium 1.707mg/L
According to the ADWG, no health guideline has been adopted for Aluminium, but that the issue is still open to review. Aluminium can come from natural geological sources or from the use of aluminium salts as coagulants in water treatment plants. According to the ADWG “A well-operated water filtration plant (even using aluminium as a flocculant) can achieve aluminium concentrations in the finished water of less than 0.1 mg/L.
The most common form of aluminium in water treatment plants is Aluminium Sulfate (Alum). Alum can be supplied as a bulk liquid or in granular form. It is used at water treatment plants as a coagulant to remove turbidity, microorganisms, organic matter and inorganic chemicals. If water is particularly dirty an Alum dose of as high as 500mg/L could occur. There is also concern that other metals may also exist in refined alum.
While the ADWG mentions that there is considerable evidence that Aluminium is neurotoxic and can pass the gut barrier to accumulate in the blood, leading to a condition called encephalopathy (dialysis dementia) and that Aluminium has been associated with Parkinsonism dementia and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, the NHMRC, whilst also acknowledging studies which have linked Aluminium with Alzheimer disease, has not granted Aluminium a NOEL (No Observable Effect Level) due to insufficient and contradictory data. Without a NOEL, a health guideline cannot be established. The NHMRC has also stated that if new information comes to hand, a health guideline may be established in the future.
In communication with Aluminium expert Dr Chris Exley (Professor in Bioinorganic Chemistry
The Birchall Centre, Lennard-Jones Laboratories, Keele University, Staffordshire UK) in March 2013 regarding high levels of Aluminium detected in the South Western Victorian town of Hamilton
“It is my opinion that any value above 0.5 mg/L is totally unacceptable and a potential health risk. Where such values are maintained over days, weeks or even months, as indeed is indicated by the data you sent to me, these represent a significant health risk to all consumers. While consumers may not experience any short term health effects the result of longer term exposure to elevated levels of aluminium in potable waters may be a significant increase in the body burden of aluminium in these individuals. This artificially increased body burden will not return to ‘normal’ levels when the Al content of the potable water returns to normal but will act as a new platform level from which the Al body burden will continue to increase with age.
Mannum – Adelaide Pipeline after Pump Station No 2 Palmer. Non Potable – Lanthanum
20/8/19: Mannum – Adelaide Pipeline after Pump Station No 2 Palmer, Lanthanum 0.0016mg/L.
20/8/20: Mannum-Adelaide Pipeline after Pump Station No.2 Palmer Lanthanum 0.0013mg/L
18/8/21: Mannum – Adelaide Pipeline after Pump Station No 2 Palmer Non Potable Lanthanum 0.0017 mg/L (max). (3.352 mg/L av. 2021-22)
Based on human health considerations, the concentration of lanthanum in drinking water should not exceed 0.002 mg/L.
GENERAL DESCRIPTION Lanthanum is an element in the rare earth group (also known as lanthanides group) that can enter water via run-off from agricultural soil where it has been used as fertiliser, from the weathering of rock, from specific discharges or use as a phosphate binder, and from leaching from the tailings of rare earth mining…
TYPICAL VALUES IN AUSTRALIAN DRINKING WATER Australian drinking water supplies have not been routinely monitored for lanthanum. Limited analytical results from a small number of water sources in Australia indicate levels orders of magnitude lower than when lanthanum is applied for phosphate control. The National Industrial Chemical Notification and Assessment Scheme (NICNAS) recommends regular monitoring of Australian drinking water reservoirs if they have been subject to the addition of a lanthanum-based water treatment product (NICNAS 2014). In this circumstance, as part of a drinking water supply system assessment, consideration should be given to the possibility of accumulation of lanthanum in the water or sediment following multiple applications of a lanthanum-based product.
In Australia, NICNAS reviewed the literature on lanthanum in its Secondary Notification Assessment for PhoslockTM (NICNAS 2014).