Nagambie (Victoria) – Chloral Hydrate
Nagambie: 2019/20: 740ug/L (0.74mg/L) (max), 0.067mg/L (av). Second highest level recorded in Australia.
“There were 3 individual results for trichloraecetaldehyde (chloral hydrate) that did not meet the drinking water quality standards during the 2019-20 reporting period in Buxton, Colbinabbin and Nagambie. These were reported to DHHS in line with Section 18 of the Safe Drinking Water Act 2003.” Goulburn Valley Water 2019/20
2011/12: Nagambie 0.035mg/L Chloral Hydrate (Highest Detection)
2010/11: Nagambie 0.063mg/L Chloral Hydrate (Highest Detection)
2009/10: Nagambie 0.045mg/L Chloral Hydrate (Highest Detection)
2004 Australian Drinking Water Guideline: Trichloroacetaldehyde (chloral hydrate): 0.02mg/L
2011 Australian Drinking Water Guideline: Trichloroacetaldehyde (chloral hydrate): 0.1mg/L
“Chloral hydrate is a disinfection by-product, arising from chlorination of water containing naturally occurring organic material (NOM). Chloral hydrate has only been detected by Goulburn Valley Water since changing to a new contract testing laboratory in November 2007. The Department of Health is currently conducting a study into the detection of chloral hydrate across Victoria.”
Nagambie (Victoria) – Chloroacetic Acids
2016/17: Nagambie 0.180mg/L Trichloroacetic Acid (Highest Detection)
2011/12: Nagambie 0.120mg/L Dichloroacetic Acid (Highest Detection)
2010/11: Nagambie 0.210mg/L Dichloroacetic Acid (Highest Detection)
2009/10: Nagambie 0.100mg/L Dichloroacetic Acid (Highest Detection)
2011/12: Nagambie 0.210mg/L Trichloroacetic Acid (Highest Detection)
2010/11: Nagambie 0.310mg/L Trichloroacetic Acid (Highest Detection)
2009/10: Nagambie 0.140mg/L Trichloroacetic Acid (Highest Detection)
2008/09: Nagambie 0.0100mg/L Trichloroacetic Acid (Highest Detection)
2007/8: Nagambie 0.175mg/L Trichloroacetic Acid (Highest Detection)
Australian Guideline Level: Trichloroacetic Acid 0.100mg/L, Dichloroacetic Acid 0.100mg/L
“Chloroacetic acids are produced in drinking water as by-products of the reaction between chlorine and naturally occurring humic and fulvic acids. Concentrations reported overseas range up to 0.16mg/L and are typically about half the chloroform concentration.
The chloroacetic acids are used commercially as reagents or intermediates in the preparation of a wide variety of chemicals. Monochloroacetic acid can be used as a pre-emergent herbicide, dichloroacetic acid as an ingredient in some pharmaceutical products, and trichloroacetic acid as a herbicide, soil sterilant and antiseptic.” Australian Drinking Water Guidelines – National Health and Medical Research Council…
There are no epidemiological studies of TCA carcinogenicity in humans. Most of the human health data for chlorinated acetic acids concern components of complex mixtures of water disinfectant by-products. These complex mixtures of disinfectant by-products have been associated with increased potential for bladder, rectal, and colon cancer in humans [reviewed by Boorman et al. (1999); Mills et al. (1998)].” Ref: tmp/Trichloroacetic acid (TCA) CASRN 76-03-9 IRIS US EPA.htm
Nagambie (Victoria) – Trihalomethanes
2016/17: Nagambie 0.310mg/L Trihalomethanes
2011/12: Nagambie 0.270mg/L Trihalomethanes
2010/11: Nagambie 0.350mg/L Trihalomethanes
Trihalomethanes: (Australian Guideline Level 250μg/L)
Why and how are THMs formed?
“When chlorine is added to water with organic material, such as algae, river weeds, and decaying leaves, THMs are formed. Residual chlorine molecules react with this harmless organic material to form a group of chlorinated chemical compounds, THMs. They are tasteless and odourless, but harmful and potentially toxic. The quantity of by-products formed is determined by several factors, such as the amount and type of organic material present in water, temperature, pH, chlorine dosage, contact time available for chlorine, and bromide concentration in the water. The organic matter in water mainly consists of a) humic substance, which is the organic portion of soil that remains after prolonged microbial decomposition formed by the decay of leaves, wood, and other vegetable matter; and b) fulvic acid, which is a water soluble substance of low molecular weight that is derived from humus”. Source: https://water.epa.gov/drink/contaminants/index.cfm
2020/21: Nagambie (Victoria) 1,2-Dichloroethane
2020/21: Nagambie (Victoria) 1,2-Dichloroethane 0.0065mg/L(?) “Single detection of 1,2-Dichloroethane detected at low levels in the raw water above the health limit”. Goulburn Valley Water Drinking Water Quality Report 2020/21.
1,2‑dichloroethane: based on health considerations, the concentration in drinking water should not exceed 0.003 mg/L.
Dichloroethanes are present in some industrial effluent and have occasionally been found in drinking water supplies in the United States at concentrations below 0.006 mg/L.
The major use for 1,2‑dichloroethane is in the production of vinyl chloride. It is also used in the production of other solvents, and can be used as a lead scavenger in petrol. 1,1‑dichloroethane is used in the commercial production of 1,1,1‑trichloroethane, as a solvent in paints, and as a varnish and finish remover.
TYPICAL VALUES IN AUSTRALIAN DRINKING WATER
Dichloroethanes have not been found in Australian drinking waters. They are included here to provide guidance in the unlikely event of contamination, and because they have been detected occasionally in drinking water supplies overseas.
TREATMENT OF DRINKING WATER
The dichloroethanes can be removed from drinking water using packed tower aeration, or by adsorption onto granular activated carbon.
2020/21: Nagambie (Victoria) p-Isopropyltoulene (p-Cymene)
2020/21: Nagambie (Victoria) p-Isopropyltoulene. “Single detection of p-Isopropyltoluene in the raw water above the health limit.” Goulburn Valley Water Drinking Water Quality Report 2020/21.
p-Isopropyltoluene, also known as p-cymene, is a naturally occurring aromatic organic
compound. It is classified as a hydrocarbon related to a monoterpene. Its structure consists of a
benzene ring para-substituted with a methyl group and an isopropyl group (U.S. EPA, 2005a).
The empirical formula for p-isopropyltoluene is C10H14 (see Figure 1). p-Isopropyltoluene
occurs naturally in more than 200 foods such as butter, carrots, nutmeg, orange juice, oregano,
raspberries, and lemon oil, and almost every spice (U.S. EPA, 2005a) and is a constituent of a
number of essential oils, most commonly the oils of cumin and thyme. The consumption of
p-isopropyltoluene is derived predominantly from its presence in traditional foods. It has been
estimated that approximately 30,000 kg of p-isopropyltoluene is consumed annually as a natural component food (U.S. EPA, 2005a). p-Isopropyltoluene is also a component of solvents used as thinners for lacquers and varnishes (HSDB, 2000) and is used in the flavor and fragrance industry (U.S. EPA, 2005a).
2019/20: Nagambie (Victoria) Iron
2019/20: Nagambie (Victoria) Iron 3.2mg/L (max)
Based on aesthetic considerations (precipitation of iron from solution and taste),
the concentration of iron in drinking water should not exceed 0.3 mg/L.
No health-based guideline value has been set for iron.
Iron has a taste threshold of about 0.3 mg/L in water, and becomes objectionable above 3 mg/L. High iron concentrations give water an undesirable rust-brown appearance and can cause staining of laundry and plumbing fittings, fouling of ion-exchange softeners, and blockages in irrigation systems. Growths of iron bacteria, which concentrate iron, may cause taste and odour problems and lead to pipe restrictions, blockages and corrosion. ADWG 2011