2008/18 – Cervantes (Western Australia) – Hardness, Total Dissolved Solids, Chloride

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Cervantes – Western Australia – Hardness

2008/09: Cervantes (Western Australia) – Hardness 332mg/L (max), 338mg/L (mean)

2009/10: Cervantes (Western Australia) – Hardness 340mg/L (max)

2010/11 Cervantes (Western Australia) Hardness 330mg/L (max), 325mg/L (av)

2011/12 Cervantes (Western Australia) Hardness 320mg/L (max), 316mg/L (av)

2013/14 Cervantes (Western Australia) Hardness 320mg/L (max), 313mg/L (av)

2014/15 Cervantes (Western Australia) Hardness 310mg/L (max), 308mg/L (mean)

2015/16 Cervantes (Western Australia) Hardness 320mg/L (max), 308mg/L (mean)

2016/17 Cervantes (Western Australia) Hardness 320mg/L (max), 314mg/L (mean)

2017/18 Cervantes (Western Australia) Hardness 350mg/L (max), 330mg/L (mean)

GUIDELINE

“To minimise undesirable build‑up of scale in hot water systems, total hardness (as calcium
carbonate) in drinking water should not exceed 200 mg/L.

Hard water requires more soap than soft water to obtain a lather. It can also cause scale to form on hot water pipes and fittings. Hardness is caused primarily by the presence of calcium and magnesium ions, although other cations such as strontium, iron, manganese and barium can also contribute.”

Australian Drinking Water Guidelines 2011

Cervantes – Western Australia – Total Dissolved Solids

2008/09: Cervantes (Western Australia) – Total Dissolved Solids 1100mg/L (max), 1000mg/L (mean)

2009/10: Cervantes (Western Australia) – Total Dissolved Solids 1011mg/L (max)

2010/11 Cervantes (Western Australia) Total Dissolved Solids 981mg/L (max), 965mg/L (av)

2011/12 Cervantes (Western Australia) Total Dissolved Solids 982mg/L (max), 940mg/L (av)

2013/14 Cervantes (Western Australia) Total Dissolved Solids 923mg/L (max), 906mg/L (av)

2014/15 Cervantes (Western Australia) Total Dissolved Solids 937mg/L (max), 912mg/L (mean)

2015/16 Cerventes (Western Australia) Total Dissolved Solids 914mg/L (max), 886mg/L (mean)

2016/17 Cerventes (Western Australia) Total Dissolved Solids 910mg/L (max), 896mg/L (mean)

2017/18 Cerventes (Western Australia) Total Dissolved Solids 947mg/L (max), 920mg/L (mean)

GUIDELINE

“No specific health guideline value is provided for total dissolved solids (TDS), as there are no
health effects directly attributable to TDS. However for good palatability total dissolved solids
in drinking water should not exceed 600 mg/L.

Total dissolved solids (TDS) consist of inorganic salts and small amounts of organic matter that are dissolved in water. Clay particles, colloidal iron and manganese oxides and silica, fine enough to pass through a 0.45 micron filter membrane can also contribute to total dissolved solids.

Total dissolved solids comprise: sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, sulfate, bicarbonate, carbonate, silica, organic matter, fluoride, iron, manganese, nitrate, nitrite and phosphates…” Australian Drinking Water Guidelines 2011

Cervantes (Western Australia) – Chloride

2013/14 Cervantes (Western Australia) Chloride 290mg/L (max), 283mg/L (av)

2014/15 Cervantes (Western Australia) Chloride 305mg/L (max), 298mg/L (mean)

2015/16 Cervantes (Western Australia) Chloride 285mg/L (max), 276mg/L (mean)

2016/17 Cervantes (Western Australia) Chloride 285mg/L (max), 279mg/L (mean)

2017/18 Cervantes (Western Australia) Chloride 305mg/L (max), 288.8mg/L (av)

“Chloride is present in natural waters from the dissolution of salt deposits, and contamination from effluent disposal. Sodium chloride is widely used in the production of industrial chemicals such as caustic soda, chlorine, and sodium chlorite and hypochlorite. Potassium chloride is used in the production of fertilisers.

The taste threshold of chloride in water is dependent on the associated cation but is in the range 200–300 mg/L. The chloride content of water can affect corrosion of pipes and fittings. It can also affect the solubility of metal ions.

In surface water, the concentration of chloride is usually less than 100 mg/L and frequently below 10 mg/L. Groundwater can have higher concentrations, particularly if there is salt water intrusion.

Based on aesthetic considerations, the chloride concentration in drinking water should not exceed 250 mg/L.

No health-based guideline value is proposed for chloride.” 2011 Australian Drinking Water Guidelines