2016/17 + 2019/20 – Behana/Copperlode (Queensland) – Lead, Colour, Iron, Manganese, pH, Turbidity

2016/17 – Behana/Copperlode – Lead

2016/17: Behana/Copperlode – Lead 0.033mg/L

Lead Australian Drinking Water Guideline 0.01mg/L

“… Lead can be present in drinking water as a result of dissolution from natural sources, or from household plumbing systems containing lead. These may include lead in pipes, or in solder used to seal joints. The amount of lead dissolved will depend on a number of factors including pH, water hardness and the standing time of the water.

Lead is the most common of the heavy metals and is mined widely throughout the world. It is used in the production of lead acid batteries, solder, alloys, cable sheathing, paint pigments, rust inhibitors, ammunition, glazes and plastic stabilisers. The organo-lead compounds tetramethyl and tetraethyl lead are used extensively as anti-knock and lubricating compounds in gasoline…ADWG 2011

2016/17 – Behana/Copperlode – Colour

2016/17: Behana/Copperlode – Colour 22 NTU

Based on aesthetic considerations, true colour in drinking water should not exceed 15 HU.

“… Colour is generally related to organic content, and while colour derived from natural sources such as humic and fulvic acids is not a health consideration, chlorination of such water can produce a variety of chlorinated organic compounds as by-products (see Section 6.3.2 on disinfection by-products). If the colour is high at the time of disinfection, then the water should be checked for disinfection by-products. It should be noted, however, that low colour at the time of disinfection does not necessarily mean that the concentration of disinfection by-products will be low…

2016/20 Behana/Copperlode (Queensland) – Iron

2016/17: Behana/Copperlode (Queensland)  – Iron 0.6626mg/L (max)

2019/20: Behana/Copperlode (Queensland)  – Iron 0.372mg/L (max) 0.008mg/L (av.)

“Aesthetic exceedance in December 2019 associated with dirty water event which often result from higher demand causing increased velocity and hence turbidity in water mains. Key
augmentation projects were commissioned between OctoberDecember 2019 which increased turbidity in the network for a short period.” 2019-20 Drinking Water Quality Management Plan

Based on aesthetic considerations (precipitation of iron from solution and taste),
the concentration of iron in drinking water should not exceed 0.3 mg/L.
No health-based guideline value has been set for iron.

Iron has a taste threshold of about 0.3 mg/L in water, and becomes objectionable above 3 mg/L. High iron concentrations give water an undesirable rust-brown appearance and can cause staining of laundry and plumbing fittings, fouling of ion-exchange softeners, and blockages in irrigation systems. Growths of iron bacteria, which concentrate iron, may cause taste and odour problems and lead to pipe restrictions, blockages and corrosion. ADWG 2011

2016/20 – Behana/Copperlode (Queensland) – Manganese

A Manganese concentration of 0.8 mg/L was measured in the drinking water from the Glenmore Water Treatment Plant (GWTP) on 11 March 2015. A follow-up sample collected from the GWTP on the same day also exceeded the health guideline value of 0.5 mg/L. Fifteen (15) of the more than 250 samples collected from Rockhampton water supply scheme from 12 to 31 March were also non-compliant for manganese. The exceedances for manganese was due to the very low dissolved oxygen levels (<2 mg/L), high organic carbon load, and greater amounts of dissolved, organically complexed manganese ions in the source water flushed out from Alligator Creek following the Tropical Cyclone Marcia event.

“Aesthetic exceedance in February 2020 associated with dirty water event which often result from higher demand causing increased velocity and hence turbidity in water mains. Key augmentation projects were commissioned between October-December 2019 which increased turbidity in the network for a short period.” 2019-20 Drinking Water Quality Management Plan

Manganese: ADWG Guidelines 0.5mg/L. ADWG Aesthetic Guideline 0.1mg/L
Manganese is found in the natural environment. Manganese in drinking water above 0.1mg/L can give water an unpleasant taste and stain plumbing fixtures

2016/20 – Behana/Copperlode (Queensland) – pH (alkaline)

2016/17 – Behana/Copperlode (Queensland) – pH 9.56 (av. 2016/17)

“(51) Aesthetic exceedances associated with an interaction between the water and cement lined pipes in the reticulation network. Alkaline water above a pH of 8 can impair the efficiency of chlorine disinfection. Council closely monitor disinfection performance through testing microbial indicators to ensure the effectiveness of chlorine is not compromised by elevated pH”. 2019-2020 Drinking Water Quality Management Plant

Based on the need to reduce corrosion and encrustation in pipes and fittings, the pH of
drinking water should be between 6.5 and 8.5.

New concrete tanks and cement-mortar lined pipes can significantly increase pH and
a value up to 9.2 may be tolerated, provided monitoring indicates no deterioration in
microbiological quality.

pH is a measure of the hydrogen ion concentration of water. It is measured on a logarithmic scale from 0 to 14. A pH of 7 is neutral, greater than 7 is alkaline, and less than 7 is acidic.

One of the major objectives in controlling pH is to minimise corrosion and encrustation in pipes and fittings. Corrosion can be reduced by the formation of a protective layer of calcium carbonate on the inside of the pipe or fitting, and the formation of this layer is affected by pH, temperature, the availability of calcium (hardness) and carbon dioxide. If the water is too alkaline (above pH 8.5), the rapid deposition and build-up of calcium carbonate that can result may eventually block the pipe.

Behana/Copperload (Queensland) Turbidity

2019/20: Behana/Copperload (Queensland) Turbidity 5.9NTU (max). 2019/20 av: 0.12NTU

“Aesthetic exceedances are associated with drinking water event “Dirty Water Northern Beaches” please refer to section Notifying the Regulator” 2019-2020 Annual Drinking Water Quality Management Plan

Chlorine-resistant pathogen reduction: Where filtration alone is used as the water treatment
process to address identified risks from Cryptosporidium and Giardia, it is essential
that filtration is optimised and consequently the target for the turbidity of water leaving
individual filters should be less than 0.2 NTU, and should not exceed 0.5 NTU at any time
Disinfection: A turbidity of less than 1 NTU is desirable at the time of disinfection with
chlorine unless a higher value can be validated in a specific context.

Aesthetic: Based on aesthetic considerations, the turbidity should not exceed 5 NTU at the
consumer’s tap.