2016/17 – Behana/Copperlode – Lead
2016/17: Behana/Copperlode – Lead 0.033mg/L
Lead Australian Drinking Water Guideline 0.01mg/L
“… Lead can be present in drinking water as a result of dissolution from natural sources, or from household plumbing systems containing lead. These may include lead in pipes, or in solder used to seal joints. The amount of lead dissolved will depend on a number of factors including pH, water hardness and the standing time of the water.
Lead is the most common of the heavy metals and is mined widely throughout the world. It is used in the production of lead acid batteries, solder, alloys, cable sheathing, paint pigments, rust inhibitors, ammunition, glazes and plastic stabilisers. The organo-lead compounds tetramethyl and tetraethyl lead are used extensively as anti-knock and lubricating compounds in gasoline…ADWG 2011
2016/17 – Behana/Copperlode – Colour
2016/17: Behana/Copperlode – Colour 22 NTU
Based on aesthetic considerations, true colour in drinking water should not exceed 15 HU.
“… Colour is generally related to organic content, and while colour derived from natural sources such as humic and fulvic acids is not a health consideration, chlorination of such water can produce a variety of chlorinated organic compounds as by-products (see Section 6.3.2 on disinfection by-products). If the colour is high at the time of disinfection, then the water should be checked for disinfection by-products. It should be noted, however, that low colour at the time of disinfection does not necessarily mean that the concentration of disinfection by-products will be low…
2016/17 Behana/Copperlode (Queensland) – Iron
2016/17: Behana/Copperlode (Queensland) – Iron 0.6626mg/L (max)
Based on aesthetic considerations (precipitation of iron from solution and taste),
the concentration of iron in drinking water should not exceed 0.3 mg/L.
No health-based guideline value has been set for iron.
Iron has a taste threshold of about 0.3 mg/L in water, and becomes objectionable above 3 mg/L. High iron concentrations give water an undesirable rust-brown appearance and can cause staining of laundry and plumbing fittings, fouling of ion-exchange softeners, and blockages in irrigation systems. Growths of iron bacteria, which concentrate iron, may cause taste and odour problems and lead to pipe restrictions, blockages and corrosion. ADWG 2011
2016/17 – Behana/Copperlode (Queensland) – Manganese
A Manganese concentration of 0.8 mg/L was measured in the drinking water from the Glenmore Water Treatment Plant (GWTP) on 11 March 2015. A follow-up sample collected from the GWTP on the same day also exceeded the health guideline value of 0.5 mg/L. Fifteen (15) of the more than 250 samples collected from Rockhampton water supply scheme from 12 to 31 March were also non-compliant for manganese. The exceedances for manganese was due to the very low dissolved oxygen levels (<2 mg/L), high organic carbon load, and greater amounts of dissolved, organically complexed manganese ions in the source water flushed out from Alligator Creek following the Tropical Cyclone Marcia event.
Manganese: ADWG Guidelines 0.5mg/L. ADWG Aesthetic Guideline 0.1mg/L
Manganese is found in the natural environment. Manganese in drinking water above 0.1mg/L can give water an unpleasant taste and stain plumbing fixtures
2016/17 – Behana/Copperlode (Queensland) – pH (alkaline)
2016/17 – Behana/Copperlode (Queensland) – pH 9.56 (av. 2016/17)
Based on the need to reduce corrosion and encrustation in pipes and fittings, the pH of
drinking water should be between 6.5 and 8.5.
New concrete tanks and cement-mortar lined pipes can significantly increase pH and
a value up to 9.2 may be tolerated, provided monitoring indicates no deterioration in
pH is a measure of the hydrogen ion concentration of water. It is measured on a logarithmic scale from 0 to 14. A pH of 7 is neutral, greater than 7 is alkaline, and less than 7 is acidic.
One of the major objectives in controlling pH is to minimise corrosion and encrustation in pipes and fittings. Corrosion can be reduced by the formation of a protective layer of calcium carbonate on the inside of the pipe or fitting, and the formation of this layer is affected by pH, temperature, the availability of calcium (hardness) and carbon dioxide. If the water is too alkaline (above pH 8.5), the rapid deposition and build-up of calcium carbonate that can result may eventually block the pipe.