2016/17 – Orroroo (South Australia) – Hardness, Chloride, Sodium, Sulphate

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Orroroo – South Australia

September 5 2016: Orroroo (South Australia) – Calcium Hardness 212mg/L

November 28 2016: Orroroo (South Australia) – Calcium Hardness 203mg/L


“To minimise undesirable build‑up of scale in hot water systems, total hardness (as calcium
carbonate) in drinking water should not exceed 200 mg/L.

Hard water requires more soap than soft water to obtain a lather. It can also cause scale to form on hot water pipes and fittings. Hardness is caused primarily by the presence of calcium and magnesium ions, although other cations such as strontium, iron, manganese and barium can also contribute.”

Australian Drinking Water Guidelines 2011

Orroroo (South Australia) – Chloride

September 5 2016 Orroroo (South Australia)  Chloride 693mg/L

November 28 2016 Orroroo (South Australia)  Chloride 737mg/L

March 20 2017 Orroroo (South Australia)  Chloride 703mg/L

June 13 2017 Orroroo (South Australia)  Chloride 712mg/L

“Chloride is present in natural waters from the dissolution of salt deposits, and contamination from effluent disposal. Sodium chloride is widely used in the production of industrial chemicals such as caustic soda, chlorine, and sodium chlorite and hypochlorite. Potassium chloride is used in the production of fertilisers.

The taste threshold of chloride in water is dependent on the associated cation but is in the range 200–300 mg/L. The chloride content of water can affect corrosion of pipes and fittings. It can also affect the solubility of metal ions.

In surface water, the concentration of chloride is usually less than 100 mg/L and frequently below 10 mg/L. Groundwater can have higher concentrations, particularly if there is salt water intrusion.

Based on aesthetic considerations, the chloride concentration in drinking water should not exceed 250 mg/L.

No health-based guideline value is proposed for chloride.” 2011 Australian Drinking Water Guidelines

Orroroo (South Australia) – Sodium

5/9/16 Orroroo  Sodium 459mg/L

28/11/16 Orroroo Sodium 458mg/L

20/3/17 Orroroo Sodium 553mg/L

13/6/17 Orroroo Sodium 456mg/L

“Based on aesthetic considerations (taste), the concentration of sodium in drinking water
should not exceed 180 mg/L….The sodium ion is widespread in water due to the high solubility of sodium salts and the abundance of mineral deposits. Near coastal areas, windborne sea spray can make an important contribution either by fallout onto land surfaces where it can drain to drinking water sources, or from washout by rain. Apart from saline intrusion and natural contamination, water treatment chemicals, domestic water softeners and
sewage effluent can contribute to the sodium content of drinking water.” ADWG 2011

Orroroo (South Australia) – Sulfate

5/9/16 Orroroo  Sulfate 402mg/L

28/11/16 Orroroo Sulfate 390mg/L

20/3/17 Orroroo Sulfate 399mg/L

13/6/17 Orroroo Sulfate 420mg/L

“Based on aesthetic considerations (taste), the concentration of sulfate in drinking water
should not exceed 250 mg/L. Purgative effects may occur if the concentration exceeds 500 mg/L.

Sulfate occurs naturally in a number of minerals, and is used commercially in the manufacture of numerous products including chemicals, dyes, glass, paper, soaps, textiles, fungicides and insecticides. Sulfate, including sulfuric acid, is also used in mining, pulping, and the metal and plating industries. Barium sulfate is used as a lubricant in drilling rigs for groundwater supply.
In the water industry, aluminium sulfate (alum) is used as a flocculant in water treatment, and copper sulfate is used for the control of blue-green algae (cyanobacteria) in water storages.
The highest concentrations reported in drinking water overseas are from groundwater supplies where the presence of sulfate is due to natural leaching from rocks. Concentrations have been reported up to 2200 mg/L. In source waters, concentrations are typically less than 100 mg/L.
The taste threshold for sulfate is in the range 250–500 mg/L.” ADWG 2011