2016/20 – Orroroo (South Australia) – Hardness, Chloride, Sodium, Sulphate, pH, Total Dissolved Solids

Orroroo – South Australia – Hardness

September 5 2016: Orroroo (South Australia) – Calcium Hardness 212mg/L

November 28 2016: Orroroo (South Australia) – Calcium Hardness 203mg/L

2018: Orroroo (South Australia). Hardness 211mg/L (max), 211mg/L (av.)

2018/19: Orroroo (South Australia). Hardness as CaCO3 680mg/L (max), 682.5mg/L (av.)


“To minimise undesirable build‑up of scale in hot water systems, total hardness (as calcium
carbonate) in drinking water should not exceed 200 mg/L.

Hard water requires more soap than soft water to obtain a lather. It can also cause scale to form on hot water pipes and fittings. Hardness is caused primarily by the presence of calcium and magnesium ions, although other cations such as strontium, iron, manganese and barium can also contribute.”

Australian Drinking Water Guidelines 2011

Orroroo (South Australia) – Chloride

September 5 2016 Orroroo (South Australia)  Chloride 693mg/L

November 28 2016 Orroroo (South Australia)  Chloride 737mg/L

March 20 2017 Orroroo (South Australia)  Chloride 703mg/L

June 13 2017 Orroroo (South Australia)  Chloride 712mg/L

2018/19: Orroroo (South Australia) Chloride 700mg/L (max), 684.5mg/L (av.)

“Chloride is present in natural waters from the dissolution of salt deposits, and contamination from effluent disposal. Sodium chloride is widely used in the production of industrial chemicals such as caustic soda, chlorine, and sodium chlorite and hypochlorite. Potassium chloride is used in the production of fertilisers.

The taste threshold of chloride in water is dependent on the associated cation but is in the range 200–300 mg/L. The chloride content of water can affect corrosion of pipes and fittings. It can also affect the solubility of metal ions.

In surface water, the concentration of chloride is usually less than 100 mg/L and frequently below 10 mg/L. Groundwater can have higher concentrations, particularly if there is salt water intrusion.

Based on aesthetic considerations, the chloride concentration in drinking water should not exceed 250 mg/L.

No health-based guideline value is proposed for chloride.” 2011 Australian Drinking Water Guidelines

Orroroo (South Australia) – Sodium

5/9/16 Orroroo  Sodium 459mg/L

28/11/16 Orroroo Sodium 458mg/L

20/3/17 Orroroo Sodium 553mg/L

13/6/17 Orroroo Sodium 456mg/L

“Based on aesthetic considerations (taste), the concentration of sodium in drinking water
should not exceed 180 mg/L….The sodium ion is widespread in water due to the high solubility of sodium salts and the abundance of mineral deposits. Near coastal areas, windborne sea spray can make an important contribution either by fallout onto land surfaces where it can drain to drinking water sources, or from washout by rain. Apart from saline intrusion and natural contamination, water treatment chemicals, domestic water softeners and
sewage effluent can contribute to the sodium content of drinking water.” ADWG 2011

Orroroo (South Australia) – Sulfate

5/9/16 Orroroo  Sulfate 402mg/L

28/11/16 Orroroo Sulfate 390mg/L

20/3/17 Orroroo Sulfate 399mg/L

13/6/17 Orroroo Sulfate 420mg/L

“Based on aesthetic considerations (taste), the concentration of sulfate in drinking water
should not exceed 250 mg/L. Purgative effects may occur if the concentration exceeds 500 mg/L.

Sulfate occurs naturally in a number of minerals, and is used commercially in the manufacture of numerous products including chemicals, dyes, glass, paper, soaps, textiles, fungicides and insecticides. Sulfate, including sulfuric acid, is also used in mining, pulping, and the metal and plating industries. Barium sulfate is used as a lubricant in drilling rigs for groundwater supply.
In the water industry, aluminium sulfate (alum) is used as a flocculant in water treatment, and copper sulfate is used for the control of blue-green algae (cyanobacteria) in water storages.
The highest concentrations reported in drinking water overseas are from groundwater supplies where the presence of sulfate is due to natural leaching from rocks. Concentrations have been reported up to 2200 mg/L. In source waters, concentrations are typically less than 100 mg/L.
The taste threshold for sulfate is in the range 250–500 mg/L.” ADWG 2011

Orroroo (South Australia) – pH (alkaline)

2018/19: Orroroo (South Australia) pH 8.775 (av)

2019/20: Orroroo (South Australia) pH (average) 8.87pH units

Based on the need to reduce corrosion and encrustation in pipes and fittings, the pH of
drinking water should be between 6.5 and 8.5.

New concrete tanks and cement-mortar lined pipes can significantly increase pH and
a value up to 9.2 may be tolerated, provided monitoring indicates no deterioration in
microbiological quality.

pH is a measure of the hydrogen ion concentration of water. It is measured on a logarithmic scale from 0 to 14. A pH of 7 is neutral, greater than 7 is alkaline, and less than 7 is acidic.

One of the major objectives in controlling pH is to minimise corrosion and encrustation in pipes and fittings. Corrosion can be reduced by the formation of a protective layer of calcium carbonate on the inside of the pipe or fitting, and the formation of this layer is affected by pH, temperature, the availability of calcium (hardness) and carbon dioxide. If the water is too alkaline (above pH 8.5), the rapid deposition and build-up of calcium carbonate that can result may eventually block the pipe.

Orroroo (South Australia) – Total Dissolved Solids

2018/19: Orroroo (South Australia) Total Dissolved Solids 2000mg/L (max), 2000mg/L (av)


“No specific health guideline value is provided for total dissolved solids (TDS), as there are no
health effects directly attributable to TDS. However for good palatability total dissolved solids
in drinking water should not exceed 600 mg/L.

Total dissolved solids (TDS) consist of inorganic salts and small amounts of organic matter that are dissolved in water. Clay particles, colloidal iron and manganese oxides and silica, fine enough to pass through a 0.45 micron filter membrane can also contribute to total dissolved solids.

Total dissolved solids comprise: sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, sulfate, bicarbonate, carbonate, silica, organic matter, fluoride, iron, manganese, nitrate, nitrite and phosphates…” Australian Drinking Water Guidelines 2011