2010/12 + 2017/20 – Lakeland (Queensland) – Hardness

Lakeland (Queensland) – Hardness

2010/12: Lakeland (Queensland) – Hardness 260mg/kg CO3/L (high) av. 236.4mg/kg CO3/L

2017/18: Lakeland (Queensland) Hardness 270mg/L (max), 178.5mg/L (av.) Treated Final Water

2018?: Lakeland (Queensland) Hardness 300mg/L (max), 263.8mg/L (av.) Chlorinated treated water

2019/20: Lakeland (Queensland) Hardness 210mg/L (max), 155.3mg/L (av.) Reticulation


“To minimise undesirable build‑up of scale in hot water systems, total hardness (as calcium
carbonate) in drinking water should not exceed 200 mg/L.

Hard water requires more soap than soft water to obtain a lather. It can also cause scale to form on hot water pipes and fittings. Hardness is caused primarily by the presence of calcium and magnesium ions, although other cations such as strontium, iron, manganese and barium can also contribute.” Australian Drinking Water Guidelines 2011